Anatomy: Larynx and Pharynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy: Larynx and Pharynx Deck (83):
1

What is the function of the Larynx?

Involved in:
-Breathing, sound production/phonation (houses the vocal cords) and protection of trachea against food aspiration

-Manipulated pitch and volume

2

Larynx is related to which cervical vertebrae?

Larynx is located at vertebral levels C3 to C6

3

What is the function of the glottis?

It is a valve contained in the larynx that serves dual function of controlling airway and producing sound during phonation

4

What is the purpose of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles?

The intrinsic muscles control the glottis

The extrinsic muscles control position of larynx in the neck.

5

What forms the cricothyroid joint?

The inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage articulates with the side acrh of the cricoid cartilage to form the cricothyroid joint.

6

What is the thyrohyoid membrane?

Membrane that connects the superior border of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone

7

True/False

The LAMINA of the cricoid cartilage is located posteriorly and the ARCH is located anteriorly

True

8

Location of the arytenoid cartilage is ..?

Arytenoid cartilage located on the superior border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage. Articulates with the cricoid cartilage through the synovial joint.

9

Name the two processes of the arytenoid cartilage

1. Muscular process for attachment of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles.

2. Vocal process for attachment of vocal ligament

Memba: Intrinsic muscle controls glottis

10

What is the importance of the arytenoid cartilage - muscular and vocal processes?

Important because it influences position and tension of the vocal folds.

- adduction
- abduction
- rotation
- tilting anteriorly and posteriorly

11

Which cartilages of the larynx paired?

- Arytenoid Cartilage
- Corniculate Cartilage
- Cuneiform Cartilage

12

How many carliages are there of the larynx?

9

3 paired and 3 unpaired

13

Which cartilages are made up of elastic cartilage?

1. Epiglottis
2. Corniculate
3. Cuneiform

14

Which cartilages are made up of hyaline cartilages?

1. Thyroid
2. Cricoid
3. Arytenoid

15

Where are the corniculate cartilages located?

Corniculate cartilages are located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage

16

Where are the cuneiform cartilages located?

Cuneiform cartilages are located anterior to the corniculate cartilages.

17

What type of joint is the cricothyroid joint?

The cricothyroid joint is a synovial joint

18

What nerve passes behind the cricothyroid joint?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve passes behind the cricothyroid joint where it becomes the inferior laryngeal nerve

19

What type of joint is the cricoarytenoid joint?

The cricoarytenoid joint is a synovial joint

20

Where is the cricoarytenoid joint located?

The cricoarytenoid joint is located on the superior border of the LAMINA of the cricoid cartilage.

21

Purpose of the cricoarytenoid joint is to...?

allow rotatory and lateral gliding movements

The lateral and downward pull of arytenoid leads to opening of the vocal folds (rima glottidis) in the shape of a V

Rotation of the joint leads to a diamond-shaped opening of the glottis

22

What is the extent of the thyrohyoid membrane?

The membrane connects the upper border of the lamina of the thyroid and its superior horns to the body and greater horn of the hyoid bone.

It forms the lateral wall of the piriform recess.

23

What is the purpose of the thyrohyoid membrane?

To anchor the larynx to the hyoid bone.

NB: The thyrohyoid membrane is not apart of the larynx.

24

What pierces the thyrohyoid membrane?

The superior laryngeal nerve and vessels perforates the thyroihyoid membrane

25

What is the extent of the hyoepiglottic ligament?

It connects the epiglottis to the hyoid bone

26

What is the extent of the thyroepglottic ligament?

It connects the epiglottis to the thyroid cartilage

27

The epiglottis is posterior to the...?

Tongue and hyoid bone

28

What is the extent of the cricotracheal membrane?

It connects the lower border of the cricoid cartilage to the first cartilagenous ring of the trachea

29

What is the extent of the quadrangular membrane?

It extends between the epiglottis and the arytenoid cartilage.

The anterior border of the quadrangular membrane is attached to the lower half of the epiglottis (the stalk) at its sides

Its posterior border is attached to the anterolateral surface of the arytenoid

Its lower border (inferior border) is free!!!

The lower border constitutes the vestibular ligament (false vocal cord)

The longer superior border (upper border) with mucous membrane constitutes the aryepiglottic fold.

30

What type of tissue is the cricothyroid ligament?

Elastic tissue

31

What is the extent of the cricothyroid ligament?

The cricothyroid ligament has 2 parts ( anterior and lateral)

1. The anterior median cricothyroid ligament

2. Paired lateral cricothyroid ligament/ paired cricovocal membrane.

The anterior median cricothyroid ligament can be found in the midline and it connects the upper border of the cricoid cartilage to the lower border of the thyroid cartilage.

The paired lateral cricothyroid ligament/cricovocal membrances are attached to the upper border of the cricoid cartilage. The superior border is free for each ligament constituting the vocal ligament/vocal cord.


Its posterior end (vocal ligament) is attached tothe vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage

The anterior end of the vocal ligament is attached to the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage and angle formed by the laminae.

32

What are the intrinsic ligaments and membranes?

The quadrangular membrane and the cricothyroid ligament

33

What are the extrinsic ligaments and membrane

1. The hyo-epiglottic ligament

2. The thyro-epiglottic ligament

3. The thyrohyoid membrane

4. The cricotracheal membrane

34

Purpose of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles

To support and position the larynx within the trachea

35

List the extrinsic laryngeal muscles

1. Suprahyoid muscles
2. Infrahyoid muscles

36

List the intrinsic muscles

1. Aryepiglottic muscles
2. Oblique arytenoids
3. Transverse arytenoid
4. Thyroepiglottic muscle

These muscles act on the inlet - the opening connecting larynx to pharynx

5. Posterior cricoarytenoids
6. Lateral cricoarytenoids
7.Oblique and transverse arytenoids
8. Thyroarytenoids and cricothyroids
9. Vocalis

These muscles affect the vocal ligaments

37

What constitute the suprahyoid muscles

1. Geniohyoid muscles
2. Digastric muscles
3. Stylohyoid muscles
4. Mylohyoid muscles
5. Hyoglossus
6. Genioglossus muscles

The suprahyoid muscles are responsible for elevating larynx

38

What are the infrahyoid muscles?

1. Sternohyoid muscles
2. Omohyoid muscles
3. Sternothyroid muscles
4. Thyrohyoid muscles

The infrahyoid muscles are responsible for depressing the larynx.

39

Difference between respiratory and phonatory muscles

Respiratory muscles move the vocal cords apart to serve as breathing

Phonatory muscles move the vocal cords together to serve the production of a sound/voice

40

What is the main respiratory muscles?

Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles

MEMBA: it is an instrinsic muscle which affects the vocal ligaments

41

What are the phonatory muscles?

Adductors - lateral cricoarytenoid muscles and arytenoid muscles

Abductors - posterior cricoarytenoid muscles

Tensors - cricothyroid muscles and thyroarytenoid muscles

All instrinsic muscles affecting the vocal ligaments

42

Attachments of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

Superior attachment: muscular proces of the arytenoid cartilage

Inferior attachment: posterior surface of lamina of the cricoid cartilage

43

Function of the posterior criocoarytenoid muscle

Causes rotation of the arytenoid cartilage, moving the vocal processes of the cartilage laterally resulting in abduction of the vocal folds (v-shaped)

It abducts vocal folds and opens the glottis.
It is the only muscle that opens the rima glottidis.

44

Attachments of the transverse arytenoid muscle

It is attached to the posterior part of the arytenoid cartilage

45

What is the function of the transverse arytenoid muscle

It draws the arytenoid cartilages medially (and vocal processes) resulting in adduction of vocal folds, helping to close the vocal folds

46

Attachment of the oblique arytenoid muscle

attaches to the muscular process of one arytenoid to apex of the arytenoid of the opposite side.
They cross each other on the posterior surface of the transverse arytenoid

47

What s the function of the oblique arytenoid muscle

Adducts arytenoid cartilages, resulting in adduction of the vocal folds

Similar to the transverse arytenoid muscle

48

Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle attachments

Superior attachment: muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage

Inferior attachment: arch of cricoid cartilage

49

What is the function of the lateral cricoarytenoid cartilage?

Causes internal rotation of arytenoid cartilage, moving vocal folds medially (adduction) - closes glottis

50

Attachments of the cricothyroid muscle

Superior attachment: inferior margin of the thyroid cartilage

Inferior attachment:
Lateral surface of the cricoid cartilage

51

Function of the cricothyroid muscle

it is a fan shaped muscle

Responsible for lengthening and tensing the vocal folds. Altering the pitch of the voice

52

What are the attachments of the thyroarytenoid muscle?

Anterior attachment: to the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage

Posterior attachment: anterior surface of arytenoid cartilage

Medial fibers of the thyroaytenoid muscle runs parallel to the vocal ligament forming the vocalis muscle

The vocalis muscle acts on the posterior part of vocal fold

53

What is the function of the thyroarytenoid muscle?

It shortens and relaxes the vocal folds, altering the pitch of the voice

54

What is the inlet of the larynx?

It is the communication point between the larynx and pharynx

55

What are the three points of the laryngeal cavity?

The vestibule
The ventricle
The infrglottic cavity

56

What is the vestible?

Its apart of the laryngeal cavity which means its a space and it is superior to the vestibular folds

57

What is the ventricle?

It is apart of the laryngeal cavity which means it is a space.

It is the depression between vestibular and vocal folds which may extend in a recess called saccule.

58

What is the infraglottic cavity?

The infraglottic cavity is apart of the laryngeal cavity which means it is a space.

It is a space that is inferior to the vocal folds and continuous with trachea

59

What is the vestibular fold and vocal fold epiithelium?

The vestibular fold are lined with pseudostratified columnar ciliated with goblet cells

The vocal fold are lined with stratified squamous non-keratinized

60

The interval between the vocal folds is the...

rima glottidis

61

What is the glottis?

The glottis is comprises of the rima glottidis and the vocal cords

62

What lines the true vocal cord?

stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium

63

What is the blood supply above the vocal folds?

The superior laryngeal branch of superior thyroi artery

Superior laryngeal nerve pierces the thyrohyoid membrane to enter the piriform recess below the internal laryngeal nerve.

64

What blood supply goes to the lower part of the larynx?

The inferior laryngeal branch of inferior thyroid artery.

It runs with the recurrent laryngeal nerve

65

What is the venous drainage to upper and lower parts of the larynx?

Above vocal folds: superior laryngeal vein which drains into the superior thyroid vein.

The veins accompany their arteries

Lower part: Inferior laryngeal vein which drains into the inferior thyroid vein

66

What is the lymph drainage to the larynx?

Drain into the upper and lower groups of the deep cervical nodes.

Upper/ superior deep cervical lymph nodes --> upper part of larynx

Inferior deep cervical lymoh --> lower part



Makes sense it is in the region of the neck

67

Where does the internal and external branches of the superior laryngeal nerve supply?

Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve - sensory innervation to mucosa superior to vocal folds

External branch of superior laryngeal nerve - to cricothyroid muscle

68

List the branches of the Vagus nerve related to the larynx

Internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.

External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve ( external laryngeal nerve)

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

69

The inferior laryngeal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies?

The inferior laryngeal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all instrinsic muscles of the larynx and sensory innervation to mucosa superior to vocal folds

The intrinsic muscles include:

Adductors - lateral cricoarytenoid and arytenoid muscles

Abductors - posterior cricoarytenoid muscles

Tensors - cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles

70

All intrinsic muscles of larynx supplied by recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of
vagus) except cricothyroid muscle (innervated by external laryngeal nerve)

All intrinsic muscles of larynx supplied by recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of
vagus) except cricothyroid muscle (innervated by external laryngeal nerve)

71

Injury to external laryngeal nerve causes?

Weakened phonation because the vocal folds cant be tightened

The Cricothyroid muscle is one of the phonatory muscles. It is the only muscle supplied by the external laryngeal nerve and it is lengthens and tenses the vocal folds.

72

What supplies the posterior cricoarytenoid?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve

73

What is the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle?

It is a muscle supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve

It is the only respiratory muscle and the only abductor phonatory muscle which rotates the arytenoids, abducting the vocal folds causing opening of rima glottidis and glottis

74

Injury the recurrent laryngeal nerve (s) results in?

Injury to one recurrent laryngeal nerve produces:

1. Hoarseness

Injury to both laryngeal nerves results in:

1. Non-preservation of the voice
2. Breathing difficulties

75

Internal laryngeal nerve pierces the?

cricothyroid ligament

76

How is the larynx (inlet) protected during swallowing?

The sphincteric action of aryepiglottic muscle closes the glottis

77

What is phonation?

Making of osuns that varies in pitch, intensity and quality (timbre)

78

How do the vocal folds look at rest from during phonation?

At rest: vocal folds are separated

During phonation: vocal folds are held together

79

How does the pitch, intensity and quality change through phonation?

Pitch: changes with variations in vibration of the vocal folds leading to sound waves of certain pitch

Intensity: intensity o the sound varies with the pressure of air forced through the glottis

Quality (timbre) : depends on the resonating chambers above the glottis

80

What is coughing?

Coughng is the explosion of compressed air

81

Action of coughing?

1. Adduction of vocal folds
2. Abduction of vocal folds

NB: strong expiratory contaction is made to build up intrathoracic pressure.

82

What are the 4 functions of the larynx?

Swallowing, breathing, phonation, and coughing

83

Where does the larynx develop from?

The laryngotracheal groove at the caudal end of the floor of the primitive pharynx

The laryngeal cartilages develop from 4th and 6th arches

Larynx is c3 - c6 in adults
Larynx is C2 - C3 in newborns, larynx descends as the child grows.