Anatomy: Nasal Cavity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy: Nasal Cavity Deck (50):

Nerve supply to the skin of the external nose is?

1. External nasal nerve (terminal part of the anterior ethmoidal nerve)

2. Infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve

3. Nasal branches of the infraorbital nerve


What is the blood supply to the skin of the external nose?

1. External nasal artery from the anterior ethmoidal artery

2. Dorsal nasal artery (terminal branch of the opthalmic artery)

3. Lateral nasal branch of facial artery

4. Septal branches of superior labial branch


What are the anatomoses of the branches of the dorsal nasal artery?

1. one branch anastomoses with the angular artery

2. one branch anastomoses with its fellow artery on the opposite side and with the lateral nasal branch of external maxillary


Dorsal nasal artery is a branch of?

The dorsal nasal artery is the terminal branch of the opthalmic artery


Formation of lateral wall of nasal cavity

Formed by the:
1. Maxilla
2. Perpendicular plate of the palatine and medial pterygoid plate (which closes the defect in the maxilla)
3. Labyrinth of the ethmoid bone, superior and middle conchae
4. Inferior concha


Depression in front of the middle concha is called?

The atrium which leads into the meatus (found behind the atrium and under the concha)


What is the formation of the medial wall of the nasal cavity?

The nasal septum consisting of bone and cartilage represents the medial wall of the nasal cavity.

Vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid (which articulates with the upper margin of the vomer) forms the posterior border of the nasal septum.

Septal cartilage forms the anterior-superior part of the septum and is frequently deviated from the midline.

Anterior-inferior part of the nasal septum is formed by the medial crura of both major alar cartilages - it is mobile


What forms the floor of the nasal cavity?

The upper surface of the hard palate


What comprises the hard palate?

The palatine process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone


What forms the roof of the nasal cavity?

Centrally : cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

Anteriorly: Nasal spine of the frontal bone and nasal bone

Posteriorly: Body of the sphenoid bone


What lies behind the superior concha?

The sphenoethmoidal recess which receives the osteium of the sphenoidal air sinus (opening of the sphnoidal sinus is present)


Which ridge bounds the atrium anterior-superiorly (depression in front of the middle concha)?

The agger nasi


Superior concha overlies which structure of the lateral wall of the nasal septum?

It overlies the superior meaturs into which drains the posterior ethmoidal air cells


Middle concha overlies which structure of the lateral wall of the nasal septum?

Overlies the middle meatus.

1. Ethmoidal bulla of the ethmoid bone - middle ethmoidal air cells
2. Hiatus semi-lunaris, (which leads into the ethmoidal infundibulum)
3. Anterior ethmoidal air cells which open into the ethmoidal infundibulum/frontonasal recess
4.Maxillary sinus ostium ( usually on the lateral aspect of infundibulum between the middle and posterior third)
5. Accessory ostium ( may be present anterior or posterior to lower part of the uncinate process)


What is the limen nasi>

A ridge found between the nasal vestibule and the nasal cavity proper


Where is the opening of the posterior ethmoidal air cells?

The superior meatus


Where is the opening of the middle and anterior air cells?

The middle meatus


List structures in the middle meatus

Ethmoidal bulla, Middle and anterior ethmoidal air cells, the opening of the frontonasal duct, semilunar hiatus, the opening of the maxillary sinus


List the structures in the inferior meatus

The opening of the nasolacrimal duct


What is the main artery supply of the nasal cavity?

The sphenopalatine branch of the maxillary artery

Makes sense because the lateral wall is made up of the maxilla!


What is the entry point of the sphenopalatine artery?

It enters the nose through the sphenopalatine foramen


Sphenopalatine artery is a branch of the...?

Maxillary artery


Spenopalatine artery supplies the...?

Mucosa over the cconchae and meatuses as well as the septum


Sphenopalatine artery anastomoses with...?

1. Septal branch of the supeior labial artery (which enters through the nostrils)

2. Ascending branch of the greater palatine artery --> Kiesselback's plexus


What is the all the blood supply to the nasal cavity?

1. Spehnopalatine branch of maxillary artery

2. Anterior and Posterior branches of the Opthami artery.


Where does the anterior and posterior opthalmic branches supply in the nose?

Enter the nose from the orbit and supplies the roof and upper parts of the lateral wall and septum


Venous drainage of the nasal cavity is...?

Pterygoid plexus, facial vein, opthalmic vein.

Rare (1%) emmissary vein which traverses foramen caecum and connect nasal veins to superior saggital sinus


Lymph drainage to nasal cavity..?

Lymph drains to the:
1. submandibula
2. Retropharyngeal
3. Deep cervical nodes


What is nerve supply to the nasal cavity

1. Olfactory nervers
2. Infraorbital nerve
3. Anterior ethmoidal nerve
4. Anterior superior alveolar nerve
5. Lateral posterior superior nasal branches of pterygopalatine ganglion
6.Posterior inferior nasal branches of the greater palatine nerve


Nerves supplying septum...?

1. Olfactory nerve in an upper part
2. Anterior ethmoidal in the front
3. Medial posterior superior nasal nerve at the back (including nasopalatine nerve)


Which area's do the olfactory nerve supply?

Olfactory area (the roof of the nasal cavity), upper parts of the lateral wall, and septum


Which area's do the infraorbital nerve supply in the nasal cavity?

The vestibular area


The respiratory area of the lateral nasal wall is supplied at the front by?

the anterior ethmoidal nerve


What supplies the lateral anterior inferior portion of the nasal cavity?

The anterior superior alvelolar nerve


What supplies the lateral posterior superior nasal cavity?

The posterior superior lateral nasal branch of maxillary nerve from the ptyergopalatine nerve


What supplies the lateral posterior inferior nasal cavity?

Posterior inferior lateral nasal branch of greater palatine nerve


What is the purpose of the paranasal sinuses?

It contributes to the warming and humidifying of inspired air


What lines the paranasal sinuses?

Respiratory Epithelium

(It also contains glands to produce film of mucus )


List the paranasal sinuses?

Maxillary, ethmoidal, frontal, sphenoidal


What are the relations of the maxillary sinus?

Roof: The floor of the orbit

Floor: Alveolar process of maxilla

Posterior wall: ptyergopalatine and infratemporal fossae

Anterior wall: Cheek


What is the shape of the maxillary sinus?

It is pyramidal shape. The apex being in the zygomatic process of maxilla. The base being the lateral wall of the nose.


What is the development of the maxillary sinus?

Present at birth but as a slit.

The size of the slit increases after puberty


The maxillary sinus opens up into the...?

The maxillary sinus opens into the posterior part of the infundibulum in the middle meatus


What is the blood supply to the maxillary sinus?

Small branches of facial, maxillary, infraorbital, greater palatine arteries.


Where is the ethmoidal sinus located?

Lies between the orbit and the nse in the ethmoidal labyrinth (lateral part of the ethmoid bone)

Ethmoidal labyrinth wall is paper thin (lamina papyracea)


How many ethmoidal cells are there?

There are between 3 to 18 ethmoidal cells. These cells are divided by bony septa.


What are the types of ethmoidal cells?

Anterior, middle and posterior ethmoidal cells. Each has its own ostium.


Describe the ethmoidal air cells

Anterior air cells - occupy the anterior part of the sinus, the ostia usually opens in the infundibulum (middle meatus) but sometimes in the frontonasal duct (which opens into the frontal sinus)

Middle air cells - drain into the middle meatus , they form the ethmoidal bulla

Posterior air cells - drain into the superior meatus


Relations of the sphenoidal sinus

Superior relation: the pituitary fossa and middle cranial fossa

Lateral relation: cavernous sinus and internal carotid artery

Posterior relation: Posterior cranial fossa and pons

Inferior relation: Roof of the nasopharynx


Where is the ostium of the sphenoidal sinus?

Ostium is located in the anterior wall od the sphenoidal sinus and opens into the sphenoethmoidal reces behind the superior concha