Anatomy of bones and joints Flashcards Preview

Science for Medicine 16 > Anatomy of bones and joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of bones and joints Deck (44):
1

Briefly explain the concept of joint stability. 


Joint stability refers to the resistance offered by various musculoskeletal tissues that surround a skeletal joint. Several structures influence the stability of a joint:
• Shape of articulating surfaces
• Fibrous capsule & ligaments
• Muscles

2

Briefly describe the blood and nerve supply to joints. 


• Joints have a rich blood & nerve supply
• Common around joints: anastomoses (branching of vessels)
• Hilton’s law: The nerve supplying a muscle that crosses a certain joint, also innervates this joint.

3

Describe some elementary joint pathology. 


• Trauma
• Arthritis – pain in joints linked to inflammation, osteoarthritis (defect in cartilage making movement difficult) and rheumatoid arthritis (autoimmune disorder)
• Craniosynostosis – premature closing of cranial sutures, leading to abnormal deformed skull growth, which can affect brain development and trap nerves etc

4

Describe the anatomical position and its importance

• Standing upright
• Head facing forward (anteriorly)
• Upper limbs by sides, palms facing anteriorly, fingers together
• Lower limbs straight, heels together, toes directed anteriorly
• In males: erected penis
• Anatomical position important as a common reference point

5

Define a joint and its functions

• Union between two or more rigid components (bone or cartilage)
• Area of articulation
• Joints are needed for movement and growth

6

What produces hyaline cartilage?

Chondrocytes

7

Describe the structure of a synovial joint

Start on the inside and proceed to the outside:
1. Bones & articulating surfaces (hyaline cartilage from chondrocytes)
2. Synovial membrane
3. Intracapsular structures - discs, menisci, etc.
4. Capsule
5. Extracapsular structures - bursae
6. Stabilizing ligaments
7. Nerve and Arterial supply
8. Movements permitted & Muscles

8

Describe some different types of synovial joints, giving examples for each

Hinge - elbow
Ball and socket - hip joint
Pivot - atlantoaxial joint
Saddle - between metacarpal and trapezium
Condylar (ellipsoid) - knuckle
Plane - acromioclavicular joint

9

Describe a hinge joint

Hinge – uniaxial, only permits flexion and extension e.g. elbow joint

10

Describe a ball and socket joint

Ball and socket – multiaxial, permits movements in several axes (flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, medial/lateral rotation, circumduction). Round head fitted into a cavity e.g. hip joint

11

Describe a pivot joint

Pivot – uniaxial, allows rotation. A round process of bone fits into a bony ligamentous socket e.g. atlantoaxial joint between atlas (C1) and axis (C2)

12

Describe a saddle joint

Saddle – biaxial, shaped like a saddle, concave and convex, found where bones are articulated e.g. between first metacarpal and trapezium of hand

13

Describe a condylar (ellipsoid) joint

Condylar (ellipsoid) – biaxial, permits wider range of flexion and extension, and a narrower range of abduction, adduction, and circumduction e.g. metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints

14

Describe a plane joint

Plane – permits gliding and sliding movements e.g. acromioclavicular joint

15

Describe the metaphysis, the diaphysis and the epiphysis of a bone.

The metaphysis is the wide portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the narrow diaphysis. Is part of the growth plate in growing bones.

16

Describe a condyle

Condyle - articular facet, smooth end of a bone covered with cartilage that articulates in a joint with the condyle of and adjoining bone.

17

Describe a epicondyle

Epicondyle & Supracondylar region/ridge/line - protruding area above or below the condyle for attachment of ligaments and muscles that act on the joint.

18

Describe a fossa

Fossa (fossi pl.): a shallow depression

19

Describe a process of a bone

Process: Any projection or bump

20

Describe a foramen

Foramen (foramena): A rounded aperture for vessels and nerves, holes and bumps

21

Describe a sulcus

Sulcus: A narrow groove

22

Describe a tuberosity

Tuberosity: A rough projection

23

Describe a tubercle

Tubercle: A small rounded projection

24

Describe a spine

Spine: A pointed process, allows attachment of muscle

25

Describe the mastoid process

The bony prominence behind the ear

26

Where is the sternal angle (angle of Louis, sternomanubrial joint)?

Between T4-T5

27

Where is the xiphoid process (xiphisternum)?

On the inferior part of sternum, T9

28

Where is the anterior superior iliac spine?

The sharp prominence at anterior end of iliac crest, L4

29

Where is the anterior superior iliac spine?

The sharp prominence at anterior end of iliac crest, L4

30

What is a germ layer?

A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis. Humans have three (triploblastic)

31

What are the different germ layers in humans and what do they produce?

o Ectoderm – generates the outer layer of the embryo, and consists of epidermis, hair, nails, lens of the eye, sebaceous glands, cornea, tooth enamel, the epithelium of the mouth and nose, peripheral nervous system, adrenal medulla, melanocytes, facial cartilage, dentin of teeth, the brain, spinal cord, posterior pituitary, motor neurons, and retina.
o Mesoderm - forms muscle (smooth and striated), bone, cartilage, connective tissue, adipose tissue, circulatory system, lymphatic system, dermis, genitourinary system, serous membranes, and notochord.
o Endoderm - forms the lining cells of all the glands which open into the digestive tube, including the stomach, the colon, the liver, the pancreas, the urinary bladder, the epithelial parts of trachea, the lungs, the pharynx, the thyroid, the parathyroid, and the intestines.

32

What two tissue types dont quite follow the pattern of generation from different germ layers?

The skin is derived from both the ectoderm (epidermis) and the mesoderm (dermis), and smooth muscle is derived from the ectoderm and mesoderm.

33

Describe the axial and appendicular skeleton

Axial skeleton comprises of bones situated in the long axis of the body.

Appendicular skeleton comprises of bones of the limbs that are “appended” to the body via the axial skeleton

34

Describe the membranes of the bone

Compact bone is surrounded on the outside by a periosteum and on the inside by the endosteum.

35

What type of growth do bones undergo to increase in width and increase in length?

• Appositional – growth occurring by apposition of new bone tissue from the outside (from the periosteum) onto existing bone to increase width and thickness
• Interstitial – growth occurring by means of cell division in the cartilage growth plate, i.e. within existing bone, to increase the length of the growing bone

36

What are tendons responsible for?

Tendons are responsible for joint movement

37

What are ligaments responsible for?

Ligaments are responsible for joint stability

38

Describe the differences between endochondral and intramembranous ossification

Bones become ossified (impregnation of inorganic minerals) from their initial organic state (known as osteoid) by either:
• Intramembraneous ossification: forms the flat bones of the skull, face, jaw, and centre of clavicle, ribs
• Endochondral ossification: forms most bones in the body, mostly long bones, sternum, vertebrae, fibula etc.

39

Give 3 examples of fibrous joints

Sutures - cranium
Syndesmosis - bones linked by interosseous ligaments or a sheet of fibrous tissue e.g. between radius and ulna
Gomphosis joint - peg like process fitted into a socket e.g. articulation between teeth and alveolar process (dento-alveolar syndesmosis)

40

What is another name for the primary cartilaginous joints?

Synchondroses

41

Describe the two types of cartilaginous joint

Synchondroses - joined by an epiphyseal plate made of hyaline cartilage on ends of bones, allows for bone growth, disappears in adults

Symphysis - made of fibrocartilage disc, do not ossify with age, in midline and have limited movement

42

What are anastomoses?

An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams. Common around joints.

43

What is Hiltons law?

Nerve supplying a muscle that crosses a joint also innervates the joint

44

What regions of the bone make up the growth plate?

Epiphysis and Metaphysis