Anatomy of the CVS 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the CVS 1 Deck (151):
1

What is the cardiovascular system composed of?

Heart

Blood vessels

Lymphatics

2

What are the different kinds of blood vessels?

Arteries

Capillaries

Veins

3

What is the heart?

Muscular pump

4

What is the function of arteries?

Distribute blood from the heart

5

What is the function of capillaries?

Exchange nutrients

6

What is the function of veins?

Collect and return blood to the heart

7

What is the function of lymphatics?

Collect and return blood to the heart

8

Where is the heart located?

Middle mediastinum

9

Where are blood vessels located?

Everywhere apart from cartilage

10

Where are lymphatics located?

Everywhere apart from the brain and eyes

11

What are the different parts of the mediastinum?

Superior mediastinum

Inferior mediastinum

Anterior mediastinum

Posterior mediastinum

Middle mediastinum

12

Where is the superior mediastinum?

T4 to sternal angle and above, following, the first rib

13

Where is the inferior mediastinum?

Everywhere below the superior mediastimum (below the first rib)

14

Where is the anterior mediastinum?

In front of the heart

15

Where is the posterior mediastinum?

Behind the heart

16

What does the middle mediastinum contain?

The heart

17

What are the 2 main circulations of the cardiovascular system?

Pulmonary circulation

Systemic circulation

18

Where does pulmonary circulation go from?

Heart - lungs - heart

19

Where does systemic circulation go from?

Heart - body - heart

20

What additional circulations does the cardiovascular system contain?

Portal circulation

Lymphatic circulation

21

What is the most important portal circulation?

Hepatic portal circulation

22

What are portal systems?

Ones that begin in capillaries, narrows into a single channel (vein) and ends up in a different set of capillaries

23

What are the great vessels of the heart?

Superior and inferior vena cava

Aorta (ascending, arch, descending)

Pulmonary veins (2 left and 2 right)

Pulmonary trunk going into right and left pulmonary artery

 

24

What direction is the heart facing?

Directed towards the left

25

What are the consequences of the heart being directed towards the left?

Right side of the heart is facing anterior

Left side of the heart is facing posterior

26

What are the 3 parts of the aorta?

Ascending aorta

Aortic branch

Descending aorta

27

What does the ascending aorta supply?

Head and upper limbs

28

What does the descending aorta supply?

Abdomen and lower limbs

29

What vertebrae level is the aortic arch?

T4

30

What are the 3 vessels that the aortic arch braches into?

Bronchiocephalic artery (seperates into right common carotid and right subclavian artery)

Left common carotid artery

Left subclavian artery

31

What does the bronchiocephalic artery split into?

Right common carotid artery

Right subclavian artery

32

Which side of the aortic branch splits into the bronchiocephalic artery?

Right

33

Where is the apex of the heart?

Lowest part

34

What is seen in the anterior view of the heart?

Right atrium

Right ventricle

35

What is seen in the posterior view of the heart?

Left atrium

Left ventricle

36

Where is the base of the heart?

Opposite the apex (left atrium)

37

What chamber makes up the apex of the heart?

Left ventricle

38

What chamber makes the base of the heart?

Left atrium

39

Where does the apex of the heart lie?

Intecostal space 5 in the midclavicular line

40

What is A?

Right ventricle

41

What is B?

Right atrium

42

What is C?

Azygos vein

43

What is D?

Aorta

44

What is E?

Left atrium

45

What is F?

Right ventricle

46

What vertebrae does the heart lie between in recumbent position?

T5 and T8

47

What is the recumbent position?

Lying down

48

What is the surface anatomy of the apex?

5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line

49

Where is the base located?

Wholy posterior, lying in front of the oesophagus

50

How does the heart compare in children?

Higher in children

51

What is dextrocardia?

Heart faces the right instead of the left

52

What is it called when the heart faces the right instead of the left?

Dextrocardia

53

What happens to the vertabrae level of the heart when you stand up?

It changes

54

What is found anterior to the heart?

Sternum and costal cartilage 4-7

55

What is found posterior to the heart?

Oesophagus

Descending aorta

Thoracic vertebrae 5-8

56

What is found lateral to the heart?

Lungs

Phrenic nerves

57

What is found inferior to the heart?

Central tendon of diaphragm

58

What is the vertebrae level of the sternal angle?

T4

59

What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?

Endocardium

Myocardiam

Epicardium

60

What is found after the epicardial layer?

Pericardial cavity

Parietal layer of serous pericardium

Fibrous pericardium

61

What is A?

Endocardium

62

What is B?

Myocardium

63

What is C?

Pericardial cavity

64

What is D?

Fibrous pericardium

65

What is E?

Parietal layer of serous pericardium

66

What is F?

Epicardium (visceral layer of serous pericardium)

67

What is the epicardium also known as?

Visceral layer of serous pericardium

68

What is the visercal layer of the serous pericardium also known as?

Epicardial cavity

69

What is the endocardium composed of?

Epithelium (simple squamous)

Basement membrane

Some connective tissue

70

What is the class of the epithelium of the endocardium?

Simple squamous

71

What does the endocardium form?

Valves

72

What layer forms valves?

Endocardium

73

What is the myocardium composed of?

Cardiac muscle

Branching fibres

Striated muscles, lots of mitochondria, single central nucleus

Rich capillary bed

74

What are characteristics of cardiac muscle?

Striated

Lots of mitochondria

Single central nucleus

75

What are myocytes connected by?

Intercalcated disks

76

What are myocytes?

Cell in cardiac muscle

77

Why are cardiac muscle bundles in different planes?

To close down chamber lumen during contraction

78

What is the epicardium composed of?

Connective tissue

Basement membrane

Epithelium

79

What is the class of the epithelium of the epicardial?

Simple squamous

80

What does the epicardium contain?

Main branches of coronary arteries

May be fatty

81

Where are the main branches of the coronary arteries contained?

Epicardium

82

What are the 4 heart chambers?

Right atrium

Right ventricle

Left atrium

Left ventricle

83

What is direction of blood flow controlled by?

Valves

84

What do valves do?

Control direction of blood flow

85

What is A?

Superior vena cava

86

What is B?

Inferior vena cava

87

What is C?

Right atrium

88

What is D?

Right ventricle

89

What is E?

Left ventricle

90

What is F?

Left atrium

91

What is G?

Left pulmonary veins

92

What is H?

Left pulmonary artery

93

What is I?

Aorta

94

What is J?

Right pulmonary artery

95

What is the right border of the heart?

Right atrium

96

What is the left border of the heart?

Left ventricle

97

What is the superior border?

Superior vena cava

Aorta

Pulmonary trunk

98

What is the inferior border?

Right ventricle

Left ventricle

99

How do valves work?

Passively

100

What prevents valve failure?

Chordae tendineae

Papillary muscles

101

What does the chordae tendineae and papillary muscles do?

Prevent valve failure (being turned inside out?

102

What are clinical abnormalities of valves?

Incompetence (widening)

Stenosis (narrowing)

103

What is incompetence of valves?

Widening

104

What is widening of valves called?

Incompetence

105

What is stenosis of valves?

Narrowing

106

What is narrowing of valves called?

Stenosis

107

What infection can affect valves?

Bacterial endocarditis

108

What are the valves connected to so when the heart contracts it spirals and twists?

Fibrous skeleton

109

What is the function of the fibrous skeleton?

When the heart contracts it spirals and twists

110

What valve is between the right atrium and right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve (right antrioventricular valve)

111

What valve is between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk?

Pulmonary valve

112

What valve is between the left atrium and left ventricle?

Mitral valve (left atrioventricular valve)

113

What valve is between the left ventricle and aorta?

Aortic valve

114

What is A?

Chordae tendinae

115

What is B?

Papillary muscles

116

What is the mitral valve also known as?

Bicuspid valve

117

What are the 2 antrio-ventricular (AV) valves?

Tricuspid valve

Mitral valve

118

What are the 2 semi-lunar (SL) valves?

Pulmonary valve

Aortic valve

119

What valves have 3 cusps?

Pulmonary valve

Aortic valve

Tricuspid valve

120

What valves have 2 cusps?

Mitral valve

121

What is A?

Tricuspid valve

122

What is B?

Pulmonary valve

123

What is C?

Aortic valve

124

What is D?

Mitral valve

125

What is the fibrous cardiac skeleton composed of?

Dense connective tissue

126

Where does the fibrous cardiac skeleton lie?

Plane between the atria and ventricles

127

What is the function of the fibrous cardiac skeleton?

Structural support

Electrical insulation

128

What does the fibrous cardiac skeleton provide support to?

Antrioventricular septum

Roots of the great vessels

Anchorage for valves

Myocytes/capillary network

129

What does the fibrous cardiac skeleton provide electrical insulation to?

Atria from ventricles

Myocardium from great vessels

130

What supplies the heart with blood?

Coronary arteries

131

What are the 2 main coronary arteries?

Right and left

132

When does the coronary arteries recieve blood?

During diastole

133

Where are the coronary arteries located?

Epicardium

134

Where does the coronary arteries get blood from?

Aorta (first branch of the aorta)

135

What happens in relation to the coronary artery at systole and diastole?

At systole openings in aortic sinuses shielded by aortic valve cusps

At diastole elastic recoil of aorta closed aortic valve and blood enters coronary arteries

136

137

What does blockage of the coronary arteries lead to?

Heart attack

138

What is the heart held in place by?

The great vessels within the fibrous pericardium

139

What are the attachments of the heart?

Central tendon of diaphragm

Sternum

Roots of great vessels

140

What is the movement of the heart like within its attachments?

It is free to move

141

Whats is the heart lined by?

Serous pericardium

142

What is the serous pericardium made of?

Epithelium

143

What is the serous pericardium composed of?

Visceral layer

Parietal layer

144

Which layer of the serous pericardium is in contract with the heart?

Visceral layer

145

What is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium also known as?

Epicardium

146

What layer of the serous pericardium is not in contact with the heart?

Parietal layer

147

What is the parietal layer of the serous pericardium bound to?

Fibrous pericardium

148

What does the continuous structure of the serous pericardium (visceral and parietal layers) allow?

Freedom of movement for the heart during the cardiac cycle

149

What does the serous pericardium secrete?

Pericardial fluid

150

What does pericardial fluid act as?

Lubricant

151

What secretes pericardial fluid?

Serous pericardium

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