Anatomy of the CVS 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the CVS 2 Deck (73):
1

What is the CVS composed of?

Heart

Arteries

Capillaries

Veins

2

What does the heart act as?

Pump

3

What do arteries do?

Distribute blood away from the heart

4

What do veins do?

Collect and return blood to the heart

5

What do capillaries do?

Exchange nutrients

6

What does the structure of a blood vessel consist of?

Tunica externa

Tunica media

Tunica intima

7

What is A?

Tunica externa

8

What is B?

Tunica media

9

What is C?

Tunica intima

10

What is the structure of the heart wall composed of?

Endocardium

Myocardium

Epicardium

11

How is the structure of the heart and blood vessels similar?

The heart is like an expanded, folded muscular blood vessel

12

What is the tunica intima composed of?

Epithelium

Basement membrane

Connective tissue

13

What is the tunica media composed of?

Muscle

Elastic tissue

14

What is the tunica externa (adventitia) composed of?

Fibrous connective tissue

15

What are some general differences between arteries and veins?

Arteries have a smaller diameter

Arteries have a thicker wall

Arteries thick media and thin adventitia

Veins thin media and thick adventitia

16

How does the media and adventitia compare in arteries and veins?

Arteries have thick media and thin adventitia

Veins have thin media and thick adventitia

17

What is A?

Arteries

18

What is B?

Vein

19

How does the individual diameter compare between arteries, arterioles and capillaries?

Arteries > Arterioles > Capillaries

20

How does the total cross sectional area compare between arteries, arterioles and capillaries?

Arteries < Arterioles < Capillaries

21

How does the lumen size compare between:

Aorta
Elastic arteries
Muscular arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Small veins
Medium veins
Large vains

22

What are the different types of arteries?

Elastic (large conducting)

Muscular (distributing)

Arterioles (terminal branches)

23

How would you describe elastic arteries?

Large conducting

24

What are examples of elastic arteries?

Aorta

Common carotid

Pulmonary

25

How would you describe muscular arteries?

Distributing arteries

26

What are examples of muscular arteries?

Coronary arteries

Radial

Femoral

27

What do elastic arteries act as?

Pressure reservoir

28

How do elastic arteries function?

Stretched during systole

During diastole heart relaxes and pressure falls, artery recoilds therby maintaining pressure on the blood

29

What is the recoil and stretch ability of elastic arteries due to?

Presence of extensive amounts of elastic fibres in tunica media

30

What are elastic fibres of elastic arteries secreted by?

Smooth muscle

31

Where are the vast amounts of elastic fibres in elastic arteries found?

Tunica media

32

What is present in the histology of elastic arteries?

Elastic laminae

33

What is present in the thick tunica media of muscular arteries?

Smooth muscle cells

34

What is not present in the tunica media of muscular arteries that is present in elastic arteries?

Elastic laminae

35

Where are the elastic fibres in a muscular artery?

Concentrated in 2 well defined sheets called internal elastic lamina (IEL)

36

How do arterioles differ from other arteries?

No internal elastic lamina

37

How many layers of smooth muscle is present in the tunica media of arterioles?

1-2 layers

38

What layer is missing from arterioles?

Tunica adventitia

39

What do arterioles control?

Blood flow to capillary bed (local)

Blood pressure (systemic)

40

What do arterioles have a rich innervation of?

Sympathetic nerves

41

What is the function of capillaries?

Main exchange site for nutrients and gases

42

What can you say about the walls of capillaries?

1 cell thick

43

What layers are capillaries missing?

No tunica media or tunica adventitia

44

What helps to direct blood flow in capillaries?

Pericytes

45

What are pericytes?

Incomplete layer of cells surrounding basement membrane which have contractile properties to help control flow of blood in capillaries

46

How is blood pressure in capillaries low?

Sum of diameters of all capillaries in the body is greater than the diameter of the aorta

47

What are the 3 kinds of capillaries?

48

How do continuous capillaries control gas exchange?

Material must pass through cell or between cells (junctions can control)

Selective transport mechanisms

49

What is present on fenestrated capillaries?

Fenestrations (pores)

With or without protein diaphragms

50

What do protein diaphragms do?

Filter molecules by molecular weight and/or charge

51

Where are fenestrated capillaries found?

Endocrine glands

Kidney renal corpuscle

52

What is unique about discontinuous capillaries?

Gap between endothelial cells (and basement membrane) allowing free passage of fluid and cells

53

Where are discontinuous capillaries found?

Liver

Spleen

Bone marrow

54

What are sinusoids?

Large diameter discontinuous capillaries

55

Where are sinusoids found?

Where large amounts of exchange take place

56

What does the tunica intima of sinusoid capillaries contain?

Phagocytic cells

57

Where are sinusoid capillaries found?

Liver

Some endocrine glands

58

What can be used to bypass capillary beds?

Arteriovenous (AV) shunt

59

Where are AV shunts found?

Skin for thermoregulation

60

Where does blood flow go after the capillary bed?

Small venule > small-medium sized vein > large vein

61

What are the different layers of a vein like?

Tunica intima is thin

Internal elastic lamina (IEL) is thin or absent

Tunica media is very thin or absent

Tunica adventitia is collagenous tissue

62

What are valves?

Endothelial projections into the lumen to prevent backflow

63

What are endothelial projections into the lumen to prevent backflow called?

Valves

64

What are the differences between superficial and deep veins?

Superficial veins are thick walled and have no surrounding support

Deep veins are thin walled and surrounding support from deep fascia and muscles

65

What does the lymphatic system do?

Drains tissue fluid lost from blood capillaries

66

Where does the lymphatic system drain into?

Systemic venous system

67

Where are nodes of the lymphatic system found?

Alongside major veins and around origins of major arteries

68

What directs the flow in the lymphatic system?

Valves

69

Are fenestrations present in lymph capillaries?

No

70

Describe the structure of lymphatic capillaries?

Lined by very thin endothelial

No fenestrations

Absent/rudimentary basal lamina

71

What keeps the lumen of lymph vessels open?

Maintained at negative hydrostatic pressure

Anchoring filaments, fine collagenous filaments link endothelial cell to surrounding tissue to keep lumen open

72

What supplies blood to a blood vessel?

Vasa vasorum

73

Where are the lymphatics of a blood vessel?

Tunica adventitia

Decks in Cardiovascular System Class (41):