Flashcards in Anatomy of the Heart. Deck (45):
Space between the two pleural cavities.
What are the contents of the Mediastinum?
Thymus, Lymph nodes, Trachea, Pericardial Sac, Heart, Main arteries and veins.
What line divides the mediastinum into superior and inferior parts?
Transverse plane from sternal angle to T4 and T5.
What is the pericardium made out of?
A fibrous and a serous layer.
What is the fibrous pericardium.
A tough connective tissue layer which defines the boundaries of the middle mediastinum.
What are the components of the serous pericardium.
Parietal and Visceral layer.
What are the attachments of the pericardium?
The base is attached to the central tendon of the diaphragm, and to the sternum with sternopericardial ligaments.
What is the innervation of the pericardium?
The phrenic nerves.
Origin of the phrenic nerves?
C3, C4, C5.
Where is the serous and the parietal layers of the visceral pericardium continuous with each other?
1 surrounding the arteries and one surrounding the veins.
Two refelections of the serous pericardium.
Oblique pericardial sinus and transverse pericardial sinus.
Transverse pericardial sinus.
When the pericardium is opened a finger can be placed here and it seperates the arteries and the veins.
Oblique pericardial sinus.
A hand under the apex of the heart and moved superiorly will meet this.
What is the signficance of the innervation of the pericardium.
Somatic pain from the pericardium can be reffered by SOMATIC AFFERENT FIBRES in the phrenic nerves to the supraclavicular region.
Inflammation of the pericardium.
Bacterial, viral, Chronic renal failure, Post myocardial infarction.
How to differentiate pain from pericarditis with pain from myocardial infarction.
Ask patient to sit forward and you can do an ECG. Pain may radiate to one or both arms like in angina.
Excess fluid between the layers of the pericardium.
Can compress the heart resulting in BIVENTRICULAR FAILURE.
Caused due to Pericardial effusion where the pericardial sac is COMPRESSED due to effusion.
Abnormal thickening of the pericardial sac which constricts the heart. The jugular venous pulse in the neck increases on inspiration and is called the Kussmaul's sign.
What are the structures froming the base of the heart?
Left atrium, small part of right and proximal part of the veins.
Where does the base of the heart rest?
On the pericardial wall opposite T5 to T8 (T6 - T9 when standing).
What forms the apex of the heart?
Left Ventrical. Inferolateral part.
What is the position of the apex of the heart on the surface?
Deep to the left fifth intercostal, midclavicular line.
What of the heart rests on the Diaphragm?
2/3 Left ventricle, 1/3 Right ventricle.
The left pulmonary surface of the heart?
Left atrium and ventricle.
The right pulmonary surface of the heart?
The right and left margins of the heart...
Are the same as the right and left pulmonary surfaces.
The inferior margin of the heart.
Between the front of the heart and the diaphragmatic surface.
The obtuse margin of the heart.
Between the front of the heart and the left pulmonary surface.
In a chest X-ray of the patient in AP view, what do you see on the right side of the patient?
Right atrium and superior vena cava.
In a chest X-ray of the patient in AP view, what do you see on the left side of the patient?
Left ventricle and apex.
Where is the Coronary sulcus?
Goes around the heart in a circle separating the atria from the ventricles.
What does the Coronary sulcus contain?
Right coronary artery, small cardiac vein, coronary sinus, circumflex branch of the left coronary artery.
What do the Anterior and posterior interventricular sulci do?
Seperate the two ventricles.
What does the anterior interventricular sulcus contain?
Anterior interventricular artery and the great cardiac vein.
What does the posterior interventricular sulcus contain?
Posterior interventricular artery and middle cardiac vein.
Which 3 veins deliver blood to the atria?
Superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus.
What is the Sulcus terminalis cordis?
Indicates the division of the right atrium in to two continuous segments. Right side of the opening of the superior vena cava to the inferior vena cava.
Where does the Sulcus terminalis originate and where does it go?
It goes from the right side of the opening of the superior vena cava to the right side of the opening of the inferior vena cava.
How would you identify the sulcus terminalis from within the atria?
You would look for the crista terminalis.
What is the crista teminalis?
Its a smooth muscular ridge found in the right atria which goes from the opening of the superior vena cava to the inferior vena cava.
Crista terminalis in the embryo?
Junction of the sinus venosus and the heart in the embryo.
The Crista terminalis is the origin for what muscle?
The pectinate muscle.
Sinus of vena cavae.
Derived from the right horn of the sinus venosus. Vena cava empty into this.