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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Heart 2 Deck (91):
1

One sign which clearly distingishes heart attack?

Sweating along with chest pain.

2

Sulcus terminalis.

Right border of the heart. Near vena cavas.

3

Inferior border of the heart.

Sepearates sternocostal and diphragmatic surfaces. Line from inferior vena cava to apex.

4

What can be found near the Base of the heart?

Pulmonary Veins.

5

The sternocostal surface of the heart comprises of?

Sternocostal - 2/3 right ventricle 1/3 left ventricle.

6

Atrioventricular groove.

Divide the base of the heart from the diaphragmatic surface. Location of the coronary sinus.

7

Left descending artery.

Branch of the left coronary artery, very important in myocardial infarction.

8

Coronary artery.

The first branch of the aorta. What is peculiar about this artery because it is the only artery that gets filled up during dystole. When the heart contracts this artery is compressed so blood is forced out.

9

Right coronary artery supplies which parts of the heart?

It supplies the right atrium and ventricles. On the ventricle it does not however supply a small strip near some groove. It supplies the inter arterial septum, the inferior one third of the inter ventricular septum, a small part of the posterior left ventricle, the SAN and AVN.

10

Left coronary artery.

-

11

Interventricular groove.

Site for anastamoses between two coronary arteries (anterior and posterior).

12

Pericardial sinuses.

-

13

Transverse pericardial sinus.

Embryology. Between the arterial and venous ends.

14

Right border of the heart.

Between superior and inferior vena cava.

15

Crista terminalis.

Divides the atria from a rough part to a smooth part.

16

What does The rough part contain?

Muscular pectinae. Trabeculae carnae.

17

The smooth part.

Clinically important? ALl chambers have a rough part and a smooth part. Smooth part is the outflow part, rough part inflow.

18

Sino Atrial Node.

Junction between sulcus terminalis and superior vena cava.

19

Atrio Ventricular Node.

Triangle of Kock, septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve.

20

Tendon of todaro.

Stimulants of the SA node goes to the AV node. A highway, a fibrous skeleton just below the endocardium. Allow quick transport of impulse.

21

Papillary muscles.

Connected via chordae tendinae to the cusps.

22

Trabeculae carnae.

Bridges ridges and papillary muscles.

23

Pulmonary valve.

1 posterior cusp and 2 anterior.

24

Aortic valve.

2 anterior cusps and 1 posterior cusp.

25

How ventricles contract.

In a spiral, as the blood goes in right angles. Blood is spiraled to the aorta by the left ventricle.

26

All have valves except for.

Superior vena cava.

27

Why we have the chordae tendinae.

To prevent the backflow of the valves.

28

Moderator Band.

Septomarginal trabeculae - found in the right ventricle and provides a shorcut to the right ventricle bypassing purkinje fibres.

29

Fossa ovalis.

Closed foramen ovale located in posterior inferior surface of the septum secondum.

30

Define Limbus.

Border.

31

What are the Venae cordis minimae.

Small vains which drain blood from the heart into the right atrium.

32

What area is the Conus arteriosus?

Outflow track of the right ventricle.

33

What are Trabecula carnae?

Muscular Irregular part on the inflow portion of the right ventricle.

34

Relate papillary muscles and trabecula carnae?

The trabecula carnae that attach to chordae tendinae are papillary muscles.

35

How many papillary muscles are in the right ventricle?

Three, same as the number of cusps in the tricuspid valve. The septal papillary muscle or the smallest papillary muscle however can be absent. The other two other the anterior (larger) and posterior.

36

What is the moderator band.

It is a specialised trabeculum which carries a portion of the cardiac conduction system ( the right bundle of the antrioventricular bundle to the anterior wall of the right ventricle).

37

Explain the terminology; commissures.

Where the cusps of a valve are continuous with each other.

38

What is the function of the papillary muscles along with the chordae tendinae.

Prevent the AV valve from going back to the right atrium.

39

Myocardial infarction and its effects on papillary muscle.

A myocardial infarction may cause prolapse of the related valve.

40

What is another name for the conus arteriosus?

Infundibulum.

41

Describe characteristic features of the semilunar valves.

It has a nodule in the middle of the lip of the cusp. The rest of it is called the laluna.

42

What are the pulmonary sinuses?

The cusps of the pulmonary valves.

43

How many pulmonary veins does a person normally have?

4 pulmonary veins.

44

How many parts does the left atrium have?

2, anterior and posterior. No distinct structure is known to seperate these two parts.

45

What structures are related to the posterior half of the left atrium?

Pulmonary veins.

46

What structures are related to the anterior half of the left atrium.

Musculi pectinati.

47

What is another name for the outflow track for the aorta?

Aortic vestibule.

48

Difference of the trabecula carnae of the left and right ventricles.

Fine and delicate.

49

Which of the two ventricle is more anterior.

Right ventricle is more anteroir.

50

What two parts make up the interventricular septum?

A muscular part and a membranous part. The membranous part is the upper part of the interventricular septum.

51

Remembering the position of the cusps of the aortic and pulmonary valves.

The [A]ortic valve has TWO [A]nterior csps and 1 posterior cusp whereas the [P]ulmonary valve has TWO [P]osterior cusps and 1 anterior cusp.

52

What are the aortic sinuses?

The cusps of the aortic valve which hold blood during diastole.

53

What are the names of the aortic sinuses?

Right, left and posterior. The right and left supply the right and left coronary arteries respectively. The posterior cusp is sometimes referred to as the non coronary sinus.

54

Describe the cardiac skeleton.

The cardiac skeleton contains four rings which surround the tow atrioventicular orifices.

55

Define what annulus means?

A ring like structure. This explains why the rings of the cardiac skeleton are also known as annulus fibrosus.

56

What are the two interconnecting areas between the four rings of the cardiac skeleton?

Right and left fibrous trigones. Aortic ring + right/left antrioventricular rings.

57

List functions of the cardiac skeleton.

Maintain integrity of openings (for e.g. aorta, atrio ventricular orifices),
Provides attachments for the cusps,
Origination of the atrial and ventricular myocardium,
Electrically isolates the atria from the ventricles.

58

Describe the location where the coronary sinus empties into the right atrium.

Between the opening of the inferior vena cava and the right antrioventricular orifice.

59

Describe the location of the coronary sinus?

On the posterior side of the heart in the coronary sulcus.

60

What is meant by cardiac dominance with related to the coronary arteries.

The artery in the patient which supplies the posterior descending artery is termed the dominant artery.

61

Describe the path of the right coronary artery.

Origin - Right Coronary Sinus,
Relation - b/w Right auricle and pulmonary trunk,
Relation 2 - Descends in coronary sulcus b/w right atrium and ventricle to the posterior part of the heart.

62

Branches of the right coronary artery.

Supplies SAN and AVN
1st, SAN branch - goes b/w aorta and right auricle,
2nd, Right marginal branch - inferior angle of the heart,
3rd, Posterior interventricular branch - Posterior interventricular sulcus.

63

What does the right coronary artery supply?

Right atrium and ventricle, part of the left atrium and the inter atrial septum, 1/3rd interventricular septum, posterior part of left ventricle.

64

Describe the course of the left coronary artery.

Origin - left aortic sinus,
Relation - goes b/w Left Auricle and pulmonary trunk,
Relation 2 - Coronary Sulcus, while still posterior the artery gives anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery.

65

Name the branches of the left coronary artery.

Circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery (Left anterior descending artery).

66

What does the left anterior descending artery do?

Origin - coronary artery,
Relation - goes to apex of the heart.

67

What does circumflex branch of the left coronary artery do.

Gives rise to the left marginal artery. Supplies the posterior part of the heart.

68

Variations in the coronary arteries.

Right dominant coronary artery commonly.
In left dominant coronary artery, a posterior interventricular branch arises from an enlarged circumflex branch.

Another variation is that the AVN and SAN commonly supplied by the right coronary artery can be supplied by the left one.

69

What line indicates the separation of the right atrium?

Sulcus terminalis cordis.

70

Coarctation of the aorta.

Congenital condition where the aorta narrows in the area where the ductus arteriosus inserts.

71

What is the ligamentum ateriosum.

A vestigial remnant of the ductus arteriosus, attaches to the left pulmonary artery and the proximal descending aorta.

72

What happens in transient bacteremia?

A mucosal surface heavily colonized by bacteria is colonized.

73

Classification of endocarditis.

Native valve - acute, subacute,
Prosthetic valve - early, late.

74

Difference between acute and subacute endocarditis.

Sub acute does not present much symptoms, has low virulent organisms, affects abnormal hearts, caused by oral streptococci but acute is caused by staph aureus.

75

What should you suspect about the patients heart if the patient has native valve endocarditis?

A structural defect in the heart.

76

Coarctation of the aorta.

Congenital condition where the aorta narrows in the area where the ductus arteriosus inserts.

77

What is the ligamentum ateriosum.

A vestigial remnant of the ductus arteriosus, attaches to the left pulmonary artery and the proximal descending aorta.

78

What happens in transient bacteremia?

A mucosal surface heavily colonized by bacteria is colonized.

79

Classification of endocarditis.

Native valve - acute, subacute,
Prosthetic valve - early, late.

80

Difference between acute and subacute endocarditis.

Sub acute does not present much symptoms, has low virulent organisms, affects abnormal hearts, caused by oral streptococci but acute is caused by staph aureus.

81

What should you suspect about the patients heart if the patient has native valve endocarditis?

A structural defect in the heart.

82

What are the two important angles of a chest X-ray.

Costophrenic - see whether there is pleural effusion, and Cardiophrenic.

83

What should ideally be seen below the left diaphragm?

The fundus of the stomach.

84

Which diaphragm appears superior?

The right one.

85

What is pneumothorax?

And abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity.

86

How can you make out atrium enlargement of the heart.

Oesophagus.

87

Where is the precordium.

The area infront of the heart.

88

What would you say the apex beat is?

The lowest and lateral most beat of the heart which is auscultated.

89

Spleen.

3,5,7,9,11.

90

Fair, Female, Fertile, Forty, Fat.

Stuff to remember about the gall bladder.

91

Beck's triad.

Muffled heart sounds, distended neck veins and fall in arterial pressure.