Anatomy of the Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Respiratory System Deck (38):
0

What cervical vertebrae can be used in the chest X-ray to locate the carina?

T5

1

What important structures are located in the lamina propria?

Arterial holes, capillaries and smooth muscle

2

What type of epithelium lines the trachea?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

3

What does the phrase dichotomous branching mean in relation to divisions of the airway and generations of the airways?

Each time an airway is reached, it divides and provides two airways. Then those divide and provide two airways. The process continues

8

Generation 1

Mainstem bronchi

10

What is the angle of the right mainstem bronchus?

20-30 degrees from midline

11

What is the angle of the left mainstem bronchus

40-55 degrees from midline

12

Generation 2

Lobar bronchi

13

How does the angles of the right/left mainstem bronchus anatomically relate to problems during intubation?

We get more right than left because it is bigger in diameter and the angle is easier

15

How many lobar bronchi are there on the right?

3 (an upper, middle and lower)

16

Generation 3

Segmental bronchi

17

How many lobar bronchi are there on the left side?

2 (upper and lower)

18

For chest PT, how is the anatomy different in the left lobar bronchi from the right lobar bronchi?

There is no left middle lobe

19

Generations 4-9

Sub segmental bronchi

21

How many segmental bronchi are there within both lungs right and left? What is happening to their diameter? What is happening to the surface area of the airways cumulatively?

18; 4.5 - 13mm; they are naturally becoming smaller

22

How has the cartilage changed at the level of the segmental bronchi?

They are pieces of cartilage and less regular in shape and volume

24

What is happening to airway diameter in the sub segmental bronchi?

Getting smaller; 1- 6cm

25

What is happening to the surface area of the airways cumulatively when you reach the sub segmental bronchi?

It is disappearing

26

How has the cartilage in the sub segmental bronchi changed from the previous generation?

Volume and support has deteriorated

27

What is happening to the number of mucous cells and globes cells in the sub segmental bronchi?

They are diminishing as well

28

Do cilia exist in the sub segmental bronchi generation?

Yes, pseudostratified ciliates columnar epithelium

29

Generations 10-15

Bronchioles

30

Generation 16

Terminal bronchioles

32

What is the airway diameter of the bronchioles?

1mm

33

What are the boundaries of the conducting zone, where does it begin and where does it end?

Generations 0-16

34

At what generation of airways does the transitional, respiratory zone begin?

17

35

What are Clara cells and what do they produce? They produce two substances, what are they?

Plump columnar cells that bulge into the lumen of the terminal bronchioles. They are probably responsible for production of mucus and surfactant found in the terminal bronchioles

36

What structures are necessary in the bronchioles to keep the airways open also referred to as airway patency?

Fibrous, elastic and smooth muscle

37

What is the cross sectional area of the respiratory bronchioles?

1000 cm squared

38

How does the increase in cross sectional area in the respiratory bronchioles affect lung sounds?

The breath sounds become quieter and diminished

39

What normal lung sounds are heard at the respiratory bronchioles?

Vesicular sounds

40

How has the epithelial tissue of the airways changed when you reach the bronchioles?

It is now pseudostratified ciliated cuboidal

41

What keeps the airways clean in the bronchioles since there is no mucociliary blanket to trap and remove debris?

Circulating macrophage

42

Generation 17-19

Respiratory bronchioles

44

What is the cross sectional area of the terminal bronchioles compared to the trachea?

116 cm squared compared to the trachea at 2 - 2.5 cm

45

What is the epithelial lining of the terminal bronchioles made of? How is it different from generations before?

Transitioned from cuboidal epithelium of generation 15 to squamous epithelium of generation 17

46

Generations 20-22

Alveolar ducts

47

Generations 23

Alveolar sacks