Flashcards in Anatomy Stuff Deck (23):
Visceral pleura rib limits:
(midclavicular) 6, (midaxillary) 8, (paravertebral) 10
Parietal pleura rib limits:
(midclavicular) 8, (midaxillary) 10, (paravertebral) 12
What is the superior pulmonary sulcus? Importance of this area?
-concave region of the thoracic wall on posterior side
-this is where the pancoast tumor likes to start and it moves superiorly (it can mess with the stellate sympathetic ganglion and brachial plexus if it goes high enough)
What are syndromes associated with Pancoast tumor?
1) Horners syndrome - if tumor infiltrates the stellate ganglion
2) T1 root of brachial plexus
-muscular disturbances - intrin sic hand
Location of artery in L and R lobe + mnemonic?
R=artery is Anterior
L=artery is Superior
What kind of epithelium starts bottom of epiglottis over false vocal cord to just above the true vocal cord and then continues after the vocal cord?
What kind of epithelium over the true vocal cord?
What kind of epithelium on top and just around the epiglottis?
-ciliated pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells (typical respiratory epithelium) - for abrasion and rough shit
-nonkeratinized stratified squamous - has to deal with more vibratory force
-nonkeratinized stratified squamous - much abrasive forces n stuff
Histology of true vocal cord:
1) stratified squamous epithelium
2) Lamina propria -CT area
-superficial -contains Reinke's space
-deep -vocal ligamnet -elastic tissue
Significance of Reinkes space:
-in lamina propria
-may collect fluid if voice overused or smoking = Reinkes edema
-change to hoarse voice
Bronchi and trachea cell types and purpose:
1) Ciliated columnar epithelial cells - primary driver of mucociliary clearance (damaged by smoking)
2) Goblet cells - mucous secretion (trap shit we breath in)
-found all the way down into lobular/primary bronchioles (none in terminal/respiratory bronchioles)
3) Basal cells - stem cell population - divide to make more shit
4) Neuroedocrine cells of Kulchitsky - secrete proteins that modulate diameter of airway =smooth muscle contraction/dilation
5) brush cells - microvilli lined cells-sensory for airway environment
bronchiole cell types:
1) ciliated cuboidal epitheial cells
2) basal cells
3) brush cells
4) seromucous glands
5) ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES
Alveolus cell types?
1) type 1 pneumocyte
2) type 2 pneumocyte
trachea levels - length?
C6 - T4/5
Trachea - layers?
-basal lamina (THICK BASEMENT MEMBRANE)
Primary bornchus layers?
-basal lamina (THINNER BASEMENT MEMBRANE)
-some smooth muscle fibers
What layer are glands in?
-lactoferrin (iron binding - keeps away from bacteria that need=antibacterial)
-IgA- (secrete it)
-alpha1-antitrypsin (mostly made in liver but some in lungs) + other protease inhibitors (prevents degredation of elastic lung tissue during inflammation)
Wall modifications in asthma:
-inc thickness of basal lamina
-inc thickness of lamina propria due to edema and emigration of inflammatory cells
-inc thickness of muscularis
-inc glands in submucosa
What is reid index used for?
Normal or have disease?
-to determine if someone has chronic bronchitis from biopsy--> (thickness of submucosa)/(thickness of basement membrane to cartilage)
-normal = 0.5
What is bronchiectasis?
-dilated bronchi due to tissue damage
Most lung carcinomas develop where?
-3/4 develop from 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order bronchi
Bronchiole wall specs?
-goblet cells usually in large bronchioles
-smooth muscle - controls diameter)
special cells in terminal and resp bronchioles?
-club (clara) cells = secretory granules-surfactant like product
-regulate ion transport
-some have stem cell functions
which cell predominates in alveoli?
MORE TYPE 2 PNEUMOCYTES