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Flashcards in Anatomy - upper limb Deck (39):
1

What are the two joints in the shoulder girdle?

Glenohumoral
Acromioclavicular

2

What ligaments attach the scapula to the clavicle?

Coracoclavicular

3

Which muscle is in the shoulder girdle?

Biceps muscle

4

What pain does tendonitis in the shoulder girdle present with?

Anterior shoulder pain

5

What are the static stabilizers of the shoulder joint?

The shoulder capsule
The labrum (fibrocartilage)

6

What are the dynamic stabilizers of the the shoulder joint?

The muscles surrounding the shoulder joint

7

Is the subscapularis muscle on the anterior or posterior side of the shoulder?

Anterior

8

Is the infraspinatous muscle on the anterior or posterior side of the shoulder?

Posterior

9

Where do rotator cuff tears normally start?

In supraspnatous (Superior shoulder)

10

What can cause impingement?

Tendonitis
Cuff tear
Subacromial bursitis
Osteophytes from AC joint

11

Are the majority of shoulder dislocations anterior or posterior shoulder dislocations?

Anterior shoulder dislocations
(about 99%)

12

Where does a Blankart lesion occur?

In the lower part of the labrum

13

What is a blankart lesion?

An injury of the anterior (inferior) glenoid labrum of the shoulder due to anterior shoulder dislocation. When this happens, a pocket at the front of the glenoid forms that allows the humeral head to dislocate into it.

14

Which nerve is most commonly associated with anterior shoulder dislocations?

Axillary nerve
(stretched at quadrangular space)

15

What is the other name for adhesive capsulitis?

Frozen Shoulder

16

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the upper arm?

Musculocutaneous nerve

17

What does the musculocutanuous nerve supply in the upper limb?

The anterior compartment of the upper arm
The sensation of the lateral forearm

18

What is the most powerful muscle of the arm?

Brachialis muscle

19

Which nerve supplies the triceps muscle?

Radial nerve

20

What nerve supplies the extension of the upper arm?

Radial nerve

21

What can happen to wrist if the radial nerve is injured in humeral shaft fractures?

Wrist drop

22

Which bones make up the elbow?

Radius, ulna, humerous

23

Which joint is the main hinge joint of the elbow?

Humero-ulnar

24

What functions/movement does the radio-capitellar joint do?

Supination & Pronation

25

What is the extensor origin of the elbow?

Lateral Epicondyle
(Tennis elbow)

26

What is the flexor origin of the elbow?

Medial Epicondyle
(Golfer's elbow)

27

What risks are associated with a supracondylar fracture?

Risk brachial artery occlusion and median nerve injury (radial and ulnar nerves can also be injured)

28

Which joints facilitate supination and pronation of the forearm?

Proximal and distal radio-ulnar joints

29

What nerve supplies the brachioradialis in the posterior compartment of the forearm?

Radial nerve

30

Which nerve supplies any extensor in the upper limb?

Radial nerve

31

What is Dupuytren's Contracture?

A condition in which there is fixed forward curvature of one or more fingers, caused by the development of a fibrous connection between the finger tendons and the skin of the palm

32

What is Trigger Finger?

A defect in a tendon causing a finger to jerk or snap straight when the hand is extended.
If the tendon becomes swollen and inflamed it can 'catch' in the tunnel it runs through (the tendon sheath). This can make it difficult to move the affected finger or thumb and can result in a clicking sensation.

(stenosing tenosynovitis)

33

What is stenosing tenosynovitis another name for?

Trigger Finger

34

What muscle causes flexion of the PIP joint?

Flexor digitorum superficialis
(FDS --> Flexor PIPJ)

35

What muscle causes flexion of the DIP joint?

Flexor digitorum profundis
(FDP --> Flexor DIPJ)

36

Which tendon causes PIPJ extension?

Central slip entensor tendon

37

Which tendon causes DIPJ extension?

Lateral slips extendsor tendon (converge)

38

What is a boutonniere deformity?

Central slip Extensor tendon rupture or attrition (RA)

(Tear in central slip)
PIP joint in flexion
DIP joint in hyperextension

39

What is a swan neck deformity?

PIPJ volar plate rupture or attrition (RA), intrinsic muscle tightness

DIP flexion (Bent)
PIP in hyperextension