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Flashcards in Anderson Review Qns Deck (55)
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1

In early heart formation, cells migrating through the anterior part of the primitive streak will form which of the components of the heart?

forms outflow tract

2

In the early embryo, during somitogenesis, how many somitomere pairs are found caudal to the most caudal somite pair?

1st pair of somites forms behind (caudal to) 7th pair of somitomeres at the expense of the 8th pair of somitomeres
-11 pairs of somitomeres kept constant at caudal end of paraxial mesoderm

3

Opposing FGF-8 and retinoic acid gradients associated with which theory regarding somite formation?

wavefront or determination front model of somitogenesis

4

The sclerotome is derived from cells from what source?

paraxial mesoderm

5

what is the source of the cardiogenic plate?

splanchnic mesoderm

6

An inductive stimulus from what source stimulates the transformation of the epithelial sclerotome into secondary mesenhcyme?

notochord

7

What type of embryonic defects are characterized as primary errors of morphogenesis that are usually multifactorial and involve a number of etiological agents including genetic and environmental factors?

malformations

8

What condition refers to the accumulation of edema fluid in the fetus during intauterine growth?

hydrops

9

Folic acid deficiency is now thought to be a major cause of what class of malformations?

neural tube defects

10

Anal atresia can be attributed to what type of disturbance?

disturbance in tissue resorption

11

What group of congenital malformations makes up the largest percentage of congenital malformations?

UNKNOWN FACTORS

12

The intermediate mesoderm in the early embryo gives rise to which system(s)/structures?

urogenital system

13

Cleft palate is the result of a defect in what developmental mechanism?

failure to fuse

14

Phocomelia is most likely to be seen after maternal exposure to which teratogenic agent during the first trimester of pregnancy?

Thalidomide

15

What are the characteristic effects caused by exposure of the fetus to alcohol?

-growth and mental retardation
-microcehaly
-face and trunk malformations
- heart defects
holoprosencephaly=severe

16

Supplementing the diet of women of childbearing age with which dietary supplement may reduce the incidence of neural tube defects such as anencepahly?

folic acid

17

In fetal hydrops, the affected brain may become enlarged and edamatous and, when sectioned, has a bright yellow color, particularly the bsal nuclei, thalamus, cerebellum, cerebral gray, and spinal cord. What term is related to this CNS damage?

kernicturus

18

An increased incidence of what conditions is strongly associated with increasing maternal age?

trisomy 21

19

During childbirth, which membranes/layers around the embryo rupture and which do not?

layers that rupture-amnion and chorion
layers that don't rupture--->allantois and secondary umbilical vesicle

20

Tendons of limb muscles arise from what source?

lateral plate mesoderm

21

Limb muscles arise from what source?

ventrolateral dermomyotome

22

Expression of what genes are involved in the separation of the dermomyotome into dorsal dermatome and ventral myotome?

expression of Pax 3, Pax 7, and Paraxis

23

In early heart formation, cells migrating through the middle part of the primitive streak will form which of the hearts components?

form ventricles

24

In early heart formation, cells migrating through the anterior part of the primitive streak will form which of the heart components?

form outflow tract

25

In early heart formation, cells migrating through the posterior part of the primitive streak will form which of the heart components?

form the atria

26

hydatidform mole is related to which genetic-related condition?

paternal imprinting

27

formation of ribs on the lumbar and sacral vertebrae occurs as a result of what genetic condition?

knockout of all Hox 10 paralogues

28

Myoepithelial cells in the lactating breast contract in response to what hormone?

oxytocin

29

Which components of the hair and its follicle are derived from ectoderm?

-hair follicle -nails -hair shaft
-sebaceous glands -secretory and duct components of mammary gland

30

Which components of the hair and its follicle are derived from mesoderm?

arrector pilli