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Flashcards in Anesthesiology Exam II Material Deck (113)
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1

Ocular reflexes are a good indicator of anesthetic depth. The bovine eye rotates __________ during light planes of anesthesia

ventromedially

2

T/F: Deracoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor

True

Deracoxib selectively inhibits COX 2

2

T/F: Vasopressin and Epinephrine are useful in arrest situations because they both work well in acidic environments

False

Vasopressin if effective in acidic environments. Epinephrine is fairly ineffective once the patient is acidemic

3

If there is excess heparin in your syringe when you're taking a sample for blood gas analysis, what would you expect to see with regard to the pH of the sample?

decreased pH

5

Local anesthetics act at the site of injection (locally). Which is typically desired: slow absorption or fast absorption into systemic circulation?

slow absorption

6

  T/F: If a patient fractures its humerus, a brachial plexus nerve block is indicated

False

Brachial plexus nerve blocks provide anesthesia to the elbow and distal (radius/ulna fracture, toe amputation, carpal arthrodesis)

7

When monitoring anesthetic depth in equines, what drug makes eye reflexes less reliable?

Ketamine

7

What is the drug of choice to treat hypotension in equines?

Dobutamine

8

What is the normal PaCO2 range for arterial blood?

35 - 45 mmHg

8

When monitoring neuromuscular blockade, you will not see any response to tetanic stimulation or posttetanic facilitation during Phase ______ depolarization

Phase I

You also won't see Train of Four (TOF) during phase 1 depolarization.

get over it.

8

Which of the following drugs would you give during cardiac arrest?

  • Phenylephrine
  • Epinephrine
  • Dopamine
  • Glycopyrrolate
  • Ephedrine

Epinephrine!

9

Is phenylbutazone a selective or non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor?

Non-selective

Phenylbutazone is a COX 1 and COX 2 inhibitor 

9

T/F: Epinephrine is the go-to drug to treat hypotension during anesthesia

False

Epinephrine should be administered during cardiopulmonary arrest! It can cause tachycardia very quickly, so go with other drugs for hypotension before turning to epinephrine.

10

“Curtis” is a 3 y.o. male intact sheep that is having a castration performed in the 7th semester surgery lab. This is your first blood gas sample under gas anesthesia. What primary acid-base disturbance is present in this patient? 

Respiratory Acidosis

pH is very low and CO2 is very high.

10

Approximately how much blood does a 4x4 gauze square hold?

~ 5-10 mL

10

T/F: 2˚ AV block is considered to be generally normal in equine anesthesia

True

2˚ AV block is generally normal and is due to inherently high vagal tone. It should be abolished by exercise or excitement

11

Naloxone is a reversal agent for what class of drugs?

Opioids

12

What are the three most common causes of hypotension under anesthesia?

vasodilation, decreased contractility, and bradycardia

13

When vasopressors are administered to a patient, what happens to the patient's heart rate?

reflex bradycardia

14

T/F: Pyridostigmine has a short onset of action and short duration

False

Pyridostigmine has a LONG onset of action and LONG duration

15

What is the minimum PCV at which cells can still carry oxygen to tissues?

21%

This correlates to 7 mg/dL Hb

16

Is aspirin a selective or non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor?

Non-selective

Aspirin inhibits COX 1 and COX 2

16

If you're performing a blood-gas analysis and you determine that the SaO2 is >88%, are you dealing with an arterial sample or a venous sample?

Arterial

If SaO2 is < 88%, it could be a mixed sample, venous, or pulmonary disease

17

What is the drug of choice for treatment of malignant hyperthermia?

Dantrolene

18

Which of the four primary acid-base disturbances is present if your patient has a base excess?

Metabolic Alkalosis

19

Colloids exhibit less redistribution than crystalloids.

For every 1 mL of blood lost in a patient, how many mLs of colloids should be administered?

1 mL

For every 1 mL of blood lost in a patient, you should replace with 1 mL of colloids

20

Which of the following local anesthetics would you expect to have the slowest onset of action?

  • Procaine
  • Lidocaine
  • Mepivacaine
  • Bupivacaine

Procaine

Procaine has a pKa of 8.9. The higher the pKa, the slower the onset of action

21

Approximately how much blood does a cotton tip applicator (CTA) hold?

~ 0.2 mL

22

 You take a blood gas analysis of your patient and the PaCO2 is 20 mmHg. Is your patient hypoventilating, ventilating normally, or hyperventilating?

hyperventilating

Normal range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mmHg

22

Why must we use caution when using Acepromazine as a premedication in breeding stallions?

potential penile prolapse