Ocular reflexes are a good indicator of anesthetic depth. The bovine eye rotates __________ during light planes of anesthesia
T/F: Deracoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor
Deracoxib selectively inhibits COX 2
T/F: Vasopressin and Epinephrine are useful in arrest situations because they both work well in acidic environments
Vasopressin if effective in acidic environments. Epinephrine is fairly ineffective once the patient is acidemic
If there is excess heparin in your syringe when you're taking a sample for blood gas analysis, what would you expect to see with regard to the pH of the sample?
Local anesthetics act at the site of injection (locally). Which is typically desired: slow absorption or fast absorption into systemic circulation?
T/F: If a patient fractures its humerus, a brachial plexus nerve block is indicated
Brachial plexus nerve blocks provide anesthesia to the elbow and distal (radius/ulna fracture, toe amputation, carpal arthrodesis)
When monitoring anesthetic depth in equines, what drug makes eye reflexes less reliable?
What is the drug of choice to treat hypotension in equines?
What is the normal PaCO2 range for arterial blood?
35 - 45 mmHg
When monitoring neuromuscular blockade, you will not see any response to tetanic stimulation or posttetanic facilitation during Phase ______ depolarization
You also won't see Train of Four (TOF) during phase 1 depolarization.
get over it.
Which of the following drugs would you give during cardiac arrest?
Is phenylbutazone a selective or non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor?
Phenylbutazone is a COX 1 and COX 2 inhibitor
T/F: Epinephrine is the go-to drug to treat hypotension during anesthesia
Epinephrine should be administered during cardiopulmonary arrest! It can cause tachycardia very quickly, so go with other drugs for hypotension before turning to epinephrine.
“Curtis” is a 3 y.o. male intact sheep that is having a castration performed in the 7th semester surgery lab. This is your first blood gas sample under gas anesthesia. What primary acid-base disturbance is present in this patient?
pH is very low and CO2 is very high.
Approximately how much blood does a 4x4 gauze square hold?
~ 5-10 mL
T/F: 2˚ AV block is considered to be generally normal in equine anesthesia
2˚ AV block is generally normal and is due to inherently high vagal tone. It should be abolished by exercise or excitement
Naloxone is a reversal agent for what class of drugs?
What are the three most common causes of hypotension under anesthesia?
vasodilation, decreased contractility, and bradycardia
When vasopressors are administered to a patient, what happens to the patient's heart rate?
T/F: Pyridostigmine has a short onset of action and short duration
Pyridostigmine has a LONG onset of action and LONG duration
What is the minimum PCV at which cells can still carry oxygen to tissues?
This correlates to 7 mg/dL Hb
Is aspirin a selective or non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor?
Aspirin inhibits COX 1 and COX 2
If you're performing a blood-gas analysis and you determine that the SaO2 is >88%, are you dealing with an arterial sample or a venous sample?
If SaO2 is < 88%, it could be a mixed sample, venous, or pulmonary disease
What is the drug of choice for treatment of malignant hyperthermia?
Which of the four primary acid-base disturbances is present if your patient has a base excess?
Colloids exhibit less redistribution than crystalloids.
For every 1 mL of blood lost in a patient, how many mLs of colloids should be administered?
For every 1 mL of blood lost in a patient, you should replace with 1 mL of colloids
Which of the following local anesthetics would you expect to have the slowest onset of action?
Procaine has a pKa of 8.9. The higher the pKa, the slower the onset of action
Approximately how much blood does a cotton tip applicator (CTA) hold?
~ 0.2 mL
You take a blood gas analysis of your patient and the PaCO2 is 20 mmHg. Is your patient hypoventilating, ventilating normally, or hyperventilating?
Normal range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mmHg
Why must we use caution when using Acepromazine as a premedication in breeding stallions?
potential penile prolapse