T/F: Birds have gas exchange in their air sacs
The air sacs play an important role in respiration, but are not directly involved in the exchange of gases. Gas exchange occurs in the parabronchial lung
What is the name of the IV access point in the tail of the rat?
Lateral tail vein
What is the best option for preanesthetic medication in a patient with renal disease?
opioid + benzodiazepine
- What about Acepromazine? NO, likely to cause hypotension
- What about Alpha-2 agonists? No, likely to decrease CO and decreased renal perfusion
Are birds more or less sensitive to local anesthetics than mammals?
Use <2 mg/kg lidocaine
CSF taps can cause airway obstruction via positioning. How can you avoid this?
Use a reinforced endotracheal tube
What is the most revealing clinical sign of impending malignant hyperthermia?
Rapidly increasing ETCO2
Rapidly increasing ETCO2 is the most revealing clinical sign of impending malignant hyperthermia
What side effect of etomidate would we want to avoid in a CNS patient?
Vomiting increases ICP
Would you recommend premedication in a patient with GDV?
Neuroleptanalgesia with benzo + pure mu agonist opioid IV. This is also the safest choice for patients with unstable CV function
What is the effect of pregnancy on MAC?
MAC is decreased in pregnant patients
So you're not going to need as much gas to keep your patient asleep and it is much easier to overdose them on inhalation anesthetics
Name three induction agents that you should NOT use in a cat with HCM:
ketamine, telazol, thiopental
What is the arrow pointing at in this ECG?
What is the basic MAC value for Isoflurane?
What provides the most useful index of cardiopulmonary fitness in dogs?
Elephants should always be placed in _________ recumbency
Pressure gauge or Manometer
It measures and indicates the pressure in this system. The pressure is measured in cm of H2O and will be a negative value during inspiration and will return to “0” during expiration. The pressure will be a positive value during inspiration when the anesthetist will be breathing for the patient (Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation or IPPV) either by pushing on the breathing bag or by using a ventilator
Why do we avoid isoflurane in patients with hepatic disease?
We don't want to avoid isoflurane
Isoflurane ↑ hepatic blood flow, is only ~0.2 % metabolized in the liver, and has less CV depression than halothane, which results in better CO and better perfusion
What is your ECG diagnosis in this 7 month old Labrador Retreiver?
Where is the heart located in a snake?
~20-25% body length from the head
Endorphins bind __________ @ pre-synaptic nerve terminal of nociceptor and post-synaptic 2˚ neurons of SC dorsal horn
What premedication helps eliminate "dive response" in birds?
Dive response is seen in waterfowl. During induction, period of apnea and bradycardia lasting up to 3-5 minutes. This is actually a stress response.
Mediated by trigeminal receptors in beak and nares
I say 'pain fibers,' you say:
Aδ and C fibers
When half-life of agonist drug is longer than that of antagonist (reversal drug), the effect is termed:
Animal will recover but then become sedate/anesthetized again once reversal agent wears off
For a first-time accupuncture patient or a debilitated patient, how many points should be selected
less than 10
For subsequent treatments: > 10 points is fine
What induction agent is preferred for C-sections?
Historically preferred in small animals, Rapid induction and recovery, Rapid metabolism in neonates, hepatic and extra-hepatic metabolism
What are some contraindications for rehabilitation massage?
open wounds, unstable fractures, severe pain, coagulation disorders, infection, or neoplasia
What is the normal PaCO2 range for arterial blood?
35 - 45 mmHg
Why is the presence of pneumatic bones in birds important to an anesthetic plan?
You do NOT want to place intraosseus fluids in pneumatic bones
Pneumatic bones: Vertebral ribs, sternum, humerus, pelvis, femur, cervical vertebrae, some thoracic vertebrae
How do you correct pulmonic stenosis?
What is your ECG diagnosis?
atrial standstill with junctional rhythm
What is Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)?
Delivery of an electrical current to the skin by surface electrodes placed over the painful region
Provides analgesia by activating non-noxious large myelinated afferent Aβ nerve fibers in the skin and inhibiting small unmyelinated C fibers within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (“gate theory”)
Contraindications: patients with pacemaker, seizure disorder, pregnancy, over infection, neoplasm, or over the heart