aneurysms and dissections & pertinent disorders/risk factors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in aneurysms and dissections & pertinent disorders/risk factors Deck (9)
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1

aneurysm

localized dilation of an artery or heart chamber due to wall weakness.

2

aneurysm causes

-atherosclerosis
-HTN
-local infection (mycotic aneurysm, syphilic aneurysm
-congenital defect
-trauma

3

AAA

Usually occur below renal arteries
Grow a few mm/year (slowly)

4

AAA risk factors

Male, >50, smoker, with atherosclerosis

5

AAA 2 outcomes:

1. rupture = death
2. (more common) thrombi on internal wall (mural thrombi) which may embolize into the arteries of the legs or intestines leading to ischemia or gangrene

6

thoracic aortic aneurysms

Associated w HTN and late syphilis. Patients with small ones can safely be followed by regular imaging
Tx: surgical replacement by prothesis, but mortality risk is 5%

7

vascular dissection

longitudinal tearing within the wall of the artery, caused by blood that enters the wall through a defect in the lining, usually an ulceration in an atheroma. Blood pulses into the wall and progresses (dissects) along tissue planes in the wall until it re-enters the main channel (rare) or ruptures

8

risk factors for vascular dissection

older men w HTN
in young men, Marfan syndrome or ehlers-danlos syndrome, both weaken the lining of the aortic wall

9

vascular dissection s/s

severe chest and back pain
neurological symptoms +
difference in BP in the right and left arms (bc of occlusion of one of the great vessels)
Emergency surgery is necessary