Flashcards in Anglo Saxon & Norman England Deck (23)
Key changes from Anglo Saxon society to Norman society?
-Normans owned most land
-Church held a quarter of the land
-Anglo Saxons held barely any land
-Thegns -> knights
How did William deal with hereward compared to the rebellions of the north?
-with hereward he used tactics, bribing monks and strategically capturing Morcar but not Hereward. He then bribed the vikings instead of fighting them.
-with the north he just destroyed everything as he was thinking less clearly and more out of frustration
-although hereward may have pushed him to the harrying possibly
What was the rebellion at Ely?
-Hereward was a local thegn, exiled under Edward and came back to find Norman's had taken his land
-Hereward and Danes raided peterborough abbey together
-Danes fled back with treasure
-Morcar joined Hereward
-William caught Morcar but Hereward fled
Rebellions of the north
-Robert cumin was a very disliked earl because of violence on villages. He took refuge in a bishops house but rebels set fire to it and killed him.
-A similar uprising happened in York involving Edgar Aethling and Rebels but William soon arrived with a big fleet and won
-Danes and Edgar attacked York and about 3000 Normans were killed, they then went to Lincolnshire but as soon as Williams army arrived they scattered
-Edwin and Morcar joined rebels in a revolt against William due to taxes, landholding, castles, etc, but William got them to surrender and kept them as hostages until they escaped
Reasons for building castles?
-Motte and bailey castles were quick to build and difficult to attack
-Symbol of Norman power
Difference between castles and burhs?
Burhs public, castles private
Burhs big, castles small
Burhs protected Anglo Saxons, castles controlled them
Who were the 4 rival claimants to the throne and why?
Harold Godwinson- Appointed by king himself
Harland Hardrada- Based on lots of secret deals, also very powerful
William of Normandy- Agreement with king Edward, backed by pope
Edgar Aethling- Royal blood but weak as young
Problems for KING HAROLD?
-Other powerful Anglo Saxon earls especially Mercia
-People didn't like Tostig and Harold was his brother
-Tostig against Harold
-William was building an invasion fleet
Gate fulford and Stamford bridge?
Harald and Tostig launched an attack against Harold but was met by Edwin and Morcar. They battled and Edwin and Morcar failed because they were outnumbered (6000 v 9000) and because Harald knew tactics also Edwin and Morcar had marshlands behind so couldn't retreat
Harold told Tostig and Harald he would give them hostages at Stamford bridge but when they arrived he launched a surprise attack and killed them both
Why was Stamford bridge and Gate fulford significant?
These invasions meant Harold wasn't there to prevent Williams invasion.
Edwin and Morcar unable to fight in battle of Hastings after
Harolds march south again weakened his army against William
His success against Hardrada made him over confident
The battle of Hastings- Williams victory, why?
Harold used old fashioned tactics, although shield walls were very effective and sophisticated
Williams tactics of waiting for Harold to leave the coast
Luck- the previous invasions (gate fulford and Stamford bridge) and Harold getting shot by an arrow
What happened after the battle of Hastings?
Edgar Aethling elected king but William stormed through the country getting people to submit including Edgar and Edwin and Morcar.
He rewarded the church a lot.
He set heavy geld tax.
He declared that he owned all land, as king.
Key features of marcher earldoms? Where were they?
Hereford, Shrewsbury and Chester.
-Smaller so easy to control and not as powerful as king
-Earls allowed to build buildings to help colonise the people of Normandy
-Earls had almost complete legal power instead of shire reeves as sheriffs now worked for earls
-Earls didn't pay tax to reward their loyalty and to encourage them to build new settlements
-Right to build castles without asking the king, as a form of quick defence
Reasons for Harrying?
-Cumin and many Normans killed at York, William was angry
-Northern rebels kept starting guerilla wars
-William didn't realise the north and south were different and required different tactics
-Rebellions caused more rebellions
-Very serious danish threat
How did William maintain royal power?
-Williams claim to the throne was stressed often
-William swore to protect Edwards laws and protect the church
-Owning all the land
Revolt of the earls
Ralph plotted with Roger and Waltheof to overthrow William and divide the kingdom into three between them. The Danes were involved however arrived late.
Waltheof backed out and alerted Lanfranc who cut off roger from the church.
William arrived and Ralph escaped (William soon went to find him and attack his castle, failing) Waltheof fled but was tricked into coming back and was imprisoned, Roger was imprisoned for life.
What was the feudal system?
Tenants in chief
Why was the church important?
-Bishops and Abbots were highly valued advisors to the kind (they were highly literate)
-Bishops often advised the king on legal matters and developed laws
-Archbishops sometimes acted as the kinda representative (including regents who temporarily replaced the king)
-Church owned a lot of land
Changes to government
-William could appoint bishops and owned church land
Significance of the forest
-Showed kings power above everything else
-Harsh punishments for breaking forest laws showed brutal side of Normans. If someone killed a deer they were blinded.
-The forest became another source of income for the crown with fines for people accused of breaking forest laws.
Significance of domesday book
Financial- It was an excellent way of working out financial opportunities whenever a tenant in chief died or forfeited land
Legal- The book included many cases of Anglo Saxons claiming their land had been taken. The book was important in sorting out legal disputes.
Military- Offers info on how many extra soldiers each tenant in chief could offer.
Changes to culture
-Penance, 40 days for each man killed
-Bad attitudes towards English