Animal Nutrition Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Animal Nutrition Test 2 Deck (134):
1

A chicken is a...

Omnivore

2

How many times does a typical dairy cow chew a day?

42,000

(4,700 to eat grain, 10,500 to eat forage, 26,400 for rumination)

3

How much saliva does a dog (carnivore) produce per day?

200 mL

4

How much saliva does an omnivore (man) produce per day?

1500 mL

5

How much saliva does a sheep (herbivore) produce per day?

10 L

6

How much saliva does a horse (herbivore) produce per day?

40 L

7

How much saliva does a cow (herbivore) produce per day?

60 L

8

How much saliva does a high producing dairy cow (herbivore) produce per day?

120-200 L

9

What percentage water is saliva?

99% water

10

What electrolytes are present in saliva?

Salts of Na, K, and some Cl and Mg

(Nah Kendra, Meg and Clara aren't coming)

11

4 major proteins found in saliva?

Mucin (lubricant)
Lysozyme (disinfectant)
Amylase (starch--> maltose, only farm animal that has it is pigs)
Lipase

12

8 functions of saliva?

-Moisten
-Solvent (taste)
-Washing
-Disinfectant
-Buffer (bicarbonates buffer VFAs so they don't damage the rumen wall)
-Nutrients (N from mucin and urea, P, and Na)
-Antifrothing (no foam=no bloat because the cow can burp/eruct)
-Excretion (toxic metals like Hg and Pb are secreted by salivary glands, also fermentation makes blue sulfide line on gums)

13

What is deglutition?

Swallowing

14

Chemicals and enzymes in the stomach?

Chemicals: HCl (breaks down proteins, activates pepsin from pepsinogen, optimal pH for enzymes, kills all bacteria so stomach is sterile)

Enzymes: pepsin and rennin (proteins) and lipase. Rennin hydrolyzes casein in milk.

15

How long is the duodenum or "duodenal loop"?

1 ft

16

Longest part of the small intestine?

Jejunum

17

What are the folds in the mucosa layer of the small intestine (primarily the jejunum) called?

Valvulae conniventes

18

Chief site of food digestion in monogastric?

Small intestine (not stomach!)

19

3 ALKALINE secretions into small intestine to mix with chyme?

Bile, pancreatic juice, and succus entericus (lubricate, dilute, make more basic)

These are all basic secretions so the can neutralize acidic chyme

20

What does duodenal juice do?

Secretes enterokinase to activate trypsin, which then activates chympotrypsin

Secreted by the Brunners glands

21

2 ways that bile salts help with fat digestion?

Solublize and emulsify fats so lipase can digest it, and form an absorbable complex with fatty acids

22

Digestive enzymes of the pancreas:

For protein digestion: trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase

For fat digestion: intestinal lipase (steapsin)

For starch digestion: amylase (amylopsin or pancreatic diastase)

For maltose digestion: maltase (into glucose)

For sucrose digestion sucrose (into glucose and fructose)

For the phospholipid lecithin: lecithinase

23

How much bacteria do the feces contain by weight?

50 %

This is mostly coliform bacteria, which produces some vitamins (like vitamin K in chickens)

24

Who has the most extensive and greatest volume in their large intestine?

Monogastric herbivores

Their large intestine (cecum and colon) is about the size of the rumen so it has a large fermentation capacity

It can digest cellulose, make B vitamins, and make bacterial protein (which can't be digested)

The VFAs produced here are absorbed just like in the ruminant!

25

What is the valsalva maneuver?

Breathe deep, close glottis, flex ab muscles

26

What are the components of urine?

Nitrogen compounds, sulfurous metabolites, minerals (Na, P, K, Cl), and water

Minerals found in urine are the same as the electrolytes found in saliva except Mg is replaced with P

27

Common name for rumen?

Paunch

28

Common names for reticulum?

Honeycomb and hardware stomach

29

Common names for omasum?

Many plies and stockmans bible

30

Common name for abomasum?

True stomach

31

Relative volume of rumen?

80%

32

Relative volume of reticulum?

5%

33

Relative volume of omasum?

7-8%

34

Relative volume of abomasum?

8-9%

35

Contents of the rumen generally equal what percentage of body weight?

20%

36

Amount of liquid in the rumen?

5-60 gallons

37

Amount of solid material in the rumen?

5-50 lbs

38

What is the lining of the forestomachs made of?

Stratified squamous (nonglandular so doesn't make mucus)

39

When is the rumen partially functional by?

6-8 weeks

40

What percentage of food is fermented to some degree?

85-95%

41

What covers the rumen wall?

Papillae. These increase absorption, so the rumen is both secretory and absorptive just like the small intestine

42

Microorganisms are made of:

50% crude protein with 3% lysine content, and this microbial protein often meets the protein requirements of the animal

They also contain energy, vitamin K, and B vitamins

The B vitamins satisfy the animals B requirements except for niacin in dairy cows and thiamin in feeder cows and animals under stress

They also make enough essential fatty acids for the animal

43

What percentage of energy do VFAs supply for the ruminant?

50%-70%

44

Function of the omasum?

Unclear, but probably involved in water and VFA absorption

45

How much gas do rumen microorganisms make a day?

600 L

46

Poloxalene

Bloatguard, anifoaming agent that has to be ingested in 12 hour intervals

47

Other solutions for bloat

2-3 oz of laundry detergent (breaks down the foam by changing the surface tension)

Trocar and cannula in emergency situations

In feedlot cattle, ionophores and increasing the forage portion of the diet

48

What percent of total digestion occurs postgastrically in the ruminant?

5-15%

49

Mean time spent in rumen digestive tract

3-4 days, first through after 12 hrs and last through after 10 days

50

How long do ruminants ruminate?

8 hours a day

51

What percentage of water and dry matter make up the rumen?

75% water and 25% dry matter

52

Concentration of bacteria in the rumen

15-50 billion/mL

53

Number of species of Protozoa found and in each animal

35 species found, 12 in each individual animal

54

Concentration of Protozoa in ruminant

20,000-500,000/mL

55

Total number of microorganisms in the rumen

2.5*10^15

56

Are more VFAs produced from grain or forage diets?

Grain

57

Gas composition:

65% CO2
25% CH4
7% N2
Some O2, H2, and H2S

58

What is produced as a fermentation product from deamination of dietary amino acids or NPN sources? What happens to it?

Ammonia (NH3), either absorbed into bloodstream or incorporated into microbial protein or lost as urea

59

Starch is found in:

Grain

60

Cellulose is found in:

Forage

61

What percent forage are dairy rations kept at to avoid Low Milkfat Syndrome?

40% or higher

62

Rumensin and Bovatec

Ionophores to favor propionate

Not useful for dairy cows bc it would cause poor milkfat and they can make more propionate by adding more grain in the diet

Pasture cattle increase gain by 0.2 lb/day and feed efficiency

Feedlot cows don't increase gain, increase feed efficiency by 5-8%

63

Maximum fat to be fed unless its bypass fat

5%, otherwise it'll hinder fiber fermentation

64

Megalac and Energy Booster

Protected fats

Can increase fat in a ruminant diet up to 7-8%

Increases milkfat and helps with energy balance

65

How do bacteria affect protein quality?

Either increase or decrease quality so that it's the same as theirs (6.8% lysine, similar to soybean meal)

Higher percentage of lysine means higher quality

66

Bypass proteins

= rumen undegradable proteins like fish, meat, or blood. Benefit: no microbial filter so animal gets it all to itself

67

Who can better utilize urea: feedlot cattle or range cattle?

Feedlot cattle because they are more energy efficient

68

Positive associative effect example

N in diet increases utilization of forage

Oklahoma Gold program: feed soybean or cottonseed protein and it'll help calves better use the energy in grass

69

Unique mastication qualities of horse

Vertical and lateral jaw movements
Only chew on one side of jaw at a time

70

Unique saliva qualities of horse

No enzymes in saliva

71

Liters in a gallon?

4

72

Unique stomach qualities of horse

Smaller stomach than other specifies (8% capacity. This is a study question!), so feed at least 2 smaller meals a day. Ruptured stomach occurs

Not a lot of muscle activity so food ends up in layers = colic and gastric ulcers

73

Unique small intestine qualities of horse

No gall bladder, so secrete 300 mL of bile an hour.

74

Unique large intestine qualities of horse

Big, accounts for over 60% of total gut capacity, 25 feet long

Divided into large and small colon

Horse on a forage diet will get most of its energy from the large intestine bc of VFA absorption

Cecum is the primary area of water absorption

Problem: impaction of large intestine may easily occur and be fatal

75

What can be made from propionate?

Glucose, probably why it's so energy efficient

76

Compare fiber digestion in the horse and ruminant

Horse is only 2/3 as good at fiber digestion because food goes through their digestive tract much faster

77

Horse fat digestion success rate

90% or better in rations up to 20% fat

78

Do horses and cows need to be fed essential amino acids?

Just horses bc they can't digest the microbial protein made in their large intestines, but cows can digest the microbial protein made in the rumen when it gets to the abomasum

79

How long after birth can a baby horse absorb immune antibodies in colostrum?

36 hours

80

Another name for amylase

Ptyalin

Human amylase is 100 times more powerful than pig amylase

81

Capacity of a pig stomach

2 gallons

82

Unique stomach qualities of pig

No rennin in gastric juice

24 hours to empty full stomach

83

Unique small intestine qualities of pig

60 ft long

2.5 gallon capacity

Pancreas makes insulin for carb metabolism

84

Trypsin

Activated by calcium and enterokinase

85

Chymotrypsin

Has coagulating action on milk (makes sense because pigs don't have rennin in gastric juice)

86

Functions of bile other than in fat digestion and absorption:

Aids in absorption of soluble vitamins
May activate pancreatic lipase
May accelerate the action of pancreatic amylase

87

Unique large intestine qualities of pig

16 feet long
2.5 gallon capacity (cecum holds .5 and colon holds 2). This is the same capacity as the small intestine

88

Unique mouth qualities of bird

No teeth
No soft palate
No separation from pharynx
Few, poorly functioning salivary glands that produce amylase

89

Order of bird digestive organs starting with esophagus:

Esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard (ventriculus)

90

Crop

Food storage, moistening

Produces milk in doves and pigeons

Some species undergo fermentation here

Doesn't affect bird if removed

91

Proventriculus

Stomach, no digestion occurs here bc food passes through in 14 seconds, except for in carnivorous birds

92

Gizzard

Muscular grinding organ, contains grit for grinding

No enzymes secreted here but enzymes from proventriculus work here

93

Unique small intestine qualities of bird

Jejunum and ileum aren't separated
No lactase found here
Villi don't have lacteals (lymph capillaries)

94

Unique ceca qualities of bird

2 of them

Water reabsorption, fiber digestion, and water-soluble vitamin synthesis happens here

Chicken doesn't need its ceca

95

Unique large intestine qualities of bird

No colon or rectum, only 2-4 inches long

Water absorption

Vitamin K synthesis occurs here in chicken

96

Rate of passage in birds

24 hours, half is passed within 4-6 hours so this is fast

97

What measurements do growth experiments usually include?

Absolute gain and then rate of gain (average daily/weekly absolute gain or relative gain)

98

What diet do animals get in growth trials?

Some get test feed and others get known basal diet

99

Feed efficiency

Weight gain per unit of feed

100

Paired feeding experiment

2 animals eat same amount so we know feed intake isn't affecting performance

101

Advantages of growth trials

Lots of data for cheap
Conditions are similar to normal environmental conditions
Easy to get measurements
Can be applied to commercial production

102

How to determine body composition changes without grinding a whole carcass?

9-10-11 rib cut

103

Digestion trial preliminary period

3-10 days

104

Digestion trial collection period

4-10 days

105

Number of animals needed for a digestion trial

4-6 animals

106

Why use indicator method?

When it's difficult to measure total feed intake or collect total feces. Remember, apparent digestibility is (I-F)/I times 100

107

Internal indicator

Indigestible thing usually found in feed, such as lignin or silica

Problem: difficulty in analysis and incomplete recovery

108

External indicator

Not usually found in feed, chemicals

Chronic oxide has to be given in a pill or mixed in a feed
Irregular excretion
Incomplete recovery
Have to recover stained particles by washing and sieving

109

Digestibility by Difference

One feed might affect digestibility of another (associative effect) so you use this method to test a feed that's mixed with other feeds

Some animals get basal diet, others get basal diet AND test feed (not either or!)

110

How do you determine true digestibility of N in ruminants?

Regression line to find amount of N in feces when fed no protein (this is the endogenous nitrogen) then subtract this from the nitrogen found in the feces

111

Balance trial

What happens AFTER absorption. Is it used or expelled?

Find total intake and total excretion (urine, feces, expelled air, everything!) to see if there's a net retention or loss of the nutrient

112

Why use purified diets?

To determine quantitative nutrient requirements!!

You can change the concentration of one nutrient and not change the others, and there's no unwanted stuff that could change the utilization and requirements for the nutrient in question

113

Advantage of simulation techniques (like cannula) for rumen digestibility?

Cheaper; digestibility trials cost a lot for cows

114

Why do similar animals digest diets to different extents?

Differences in mastication and stomach capacity

115

How do you get an accurate weight in growth trials?

Get 2-3 consecutive daily weights

Gut fill hindering true weight measurement is a problem, especially in ruminants

116

Why use the nylon bag technique?

Comparing feedstuffs (actual values aren't the same as digestion trials but you can still compare) and study rumen digestion of GRAIN

117

What can the body lose and still survive (fat, protein, water?)

Almost all of its fat, half of its protein, but 10% water loss causes death for most (20% loss is possible for some)

118

What chemical component yields the most metabolic water upon hydrolysis?

Fat

119

What chemical component supplies the most net metabolic water?

Carbs

120

What percentage of their total water do cows and horses derive from metabolic water?

5-10%

In some species it can contribute up to 50% of it

121

Water content of most species:

70-75%

122

Water content in individual tissues:

90%

123

How much water (percent) does a normal adult human have?

60-65%

124

Intracellular fluid compartment water accounts for how much of total body weight?

40-45% of body weight

125

Extracellular fluid compartment water accounts for how much of total body weight?

20% of body weight


1/3 of all body water.

126

Water in the gut and urinary tract accounts for how much of total body weight?

25-30%

127

How saturated is air when it's expelled?

90% saturated

128

What percent of water is eliminated by the kidneys, lungs, feces, and skin?

Kidneys: 60%
Skin: 18%
Lungs: 15%
Intestines: 7%

129

Water to dry matter intake ratio?

3-6 water: 1 DM

2-5 kg water: 1 kg dry feed

130

Water to milk production ratio

1 water: 1 milk

131

What portion of body mass is water? Molecules?

1/2 - 2/3 of body mass in adults, up to 90% in newborns

99% of molecules in body are water

132

How many Cal does 1 g of water take up?

580 Cal

133

Water to DM for cows?

4:1

134

Water to DM for sheep?

2.5-3 :1

(Better at conserving water than cows)