Animal Nutrition Test 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Animal Nutrition Test 5 Deck (227):
1

How many interactions are known to occur between pairs of minerals (if level of one is increased then digestibility, absorbability, or metabolizability of the other mineral is reduced)?

Over 45

2

How many mineral elements are required in the diet?

Good evidence for 20, many nutritionist think there's more. The text says 22, but the specific 22 minerals can't be nailed down from the reading)

3

When a mineral in the body has no function it's called

An innocuous contaminant

4

Name the macrominerals

Mg2+
Na+
P (PO4)
S
Cl-
Ca2+
K+

5

Name the microminerals

Si
Mo
Co
Mn
Zn
Cu
Se
Cr
I
F
Fe
B

6

Example of mineral involved with hormones

Iodine is a part of the thyroxine hormone, which speeds up the body's metabolism

7

Calcium constitutes what percent of bone wet weight?

9%

8

What percent of all body calcium is found in the bones and teeth? Soft tissues and blood?

99%, 1%

9

Minerals required for bone lengthening

Ca, P, Mg, F

10

Which vitamin is necessary for calcium transport across biological membranes?

D

11

Optimal dietary Ca:P ratios for nonruminants

1:1-2:1

12

How are fatty acids involved with Ca digestibility?

Fatty acids freed from fat digestion bind Ca, forming an indigestible fatty acid-Ca complex (similar to soap). This reduces Ca digestibility

13

Ca inhibits absorption of what mineral (besides P)?

Zn

14

Chronic Ca deficiency symptoms:

Rickets plus acute symptoms. Rickets is a disease of young growing animals which can also be caused by vit D deficiency or P imbalance

15

Acute Ca deficiency symptoms:

Muscle incoordination (wobbly walks), paralysis, even death. "Big head" disease in horses, various bone disorders

16

2 other names for calcium tetany

Milk fever
Parturient paresis

17

What species is milk tetany common in?

Dairy cattle, dogs, sows, and other species

18

When does milk fever usually occur?

Within the first 5 days after parturition (basically bc milk synthesis depletes the blood of calcium)

19

Problem with calcitonin and milk tetany

Female absorbs extra Ca during pregnancy and calcitonin helps deposit it in bones. But when lactation starts after giving birth, BLOOD calcium levels drop bc milk needs the calcium. The resulting low blood calcium stimulates parathyroid hormone production, but this is overridden by the calcitonin that is still present so blood can't be released from bones, until several hours after the calcitonin was produced when it starts being destroyed. Then when the calcitonin is gone the danger of milk fever is gone, is the female lives that long

20

Modern and old-days treatment of milk fever

Modern: inject Ca, glucose, and Mg. The female will usually recover in less than 30 mins, but another injection may be needed to cure her

Old: reverse milk synthesis mechanism so the milk can be reabsorbed into body. This is done by inflating a cows udder with an air pump and a teat cannula and then sealing the teats with tape

21

Prevention of milk fever

-feed low calcium diet for 2 weeks before birth to stimulate parathyroid hormone, which will destroy calcitonin
-inject a big dose of vit D within 7 days prior to birth to stimulate extra ca absorption and therefore increase blood calcium levels (caution: if vit D is injected too soon then vit D toxicity, characterized by soft tissue and joint calcification, and milk fever may result)

22

What is the most versatile element found in livestock? Why?

P, it's involved in almost every aspect of metabolism

23

What percent of all body P is found in the bones and teeth? Soft tissues and blood?

80%, 20%

Nearly all cells have P in them

24

Metabolic functions of P

-P combines with Ca to form crystals that resemble hydroxyapatite crystals, and these are components of hard tissues (therefore it's indirectly controlled by same hormones as Ca bc it "follows" Ca)
-component of many enzymes (phosphoproteins)
-energy utilization (ATP for example)
-buffer in blood
-protein synthesis (P in RNA and DNA)
-lipid transport and metabolism and cell membrane structure (phospholipids)

25

Ca:P ratio in:

Monogastrics
Pigs
Laying hens
Growing chickens

Monogastrics: 1:1-1.5:1
Pigs: 1:1-1.2:1
Laying hens: much higher Ca bc egg shell is mostly Ca
Growing chickens: 2:1

Always check the current NRC or Extension Service recommendations

26

How much plant P is unavailable? Why?

1/2-2/3

Phytic acid in plants binds P and the complex (phytate P) is indigestible to monogastrics, which don't have phytase to free the P from phytic acid

The phytate P in animal manure is an environmental problem

27

P deficiency symptoms:

-Rickets in growing animals
-decreased appetite and anorexia
-reduced productivity
-abnormal eating or chewing called pica (chewing on wood and bones, eating soil, and a depraved appetite)
-long term effects in adults result in lameness and reduced bone strength

28

Percent of Mg bound in bones?

70%

29

Remember: in terms of largest mineral presence, it goes Ca>P>Mg>others

:)

30

Functions of Mg

-bone development and maintenance
-needed by enzymes for optimal activity (all enzymes that hydrolyze ATP need it)
-carb, fat, and protein metabolism (bc of bullet above)

31

Deficiency symptoms of Mg

-neuromuscular hyperirritability (muscle spasms)
-skin lesions
-calcium deposits in arteries, kidneys, and soft tissue (arteriosclerosis?)
-reduced microbial fermentation in rumen and cecum
-retracted head in calves
-anorexia and reduced productivity
-grass tetany
-bone abnormalities

32

4 other names for grass tetany

Wheat poisoning
Grass staggers
Lactation tetany
Winter tetany

Low blood Mg levels

33

Grass tetany typically occurs in:

Beef cattle that are grazing lush green pastures, especially when they're lactating (losing Mg in milk) or those grazing heavily fertilized pastures and those is colder temperatures (shivering depletes Mg)

(The grass is typically adequate in Mg but due to poor Mg absorption, blood, bone, and muscle Mg levels are reduced. The poor absorption can be caused by too much P and protein in the grass, so analyzing the grass for Mg alone won't give you any advanced warning of grass tetany)

34

Symptoms of grass tetany

Standing alone
Loss of appetite
Easy excitability
Viscousness
Grinding of teeth
Salivation
Incoordination
Collapse
Convulsions
Coma
Death (usually the first indication that you have grass tetany unless you check your heard 3 or more times a day)

35

How long after first grass tetany symptoms are observed does death usually occur?

6-20 hours

36

Grass tetany treatment

Injection of calculi-Mg solution under the supervision of a vet, only if the animal hasn't gone into a coma yet


If the animal has been unable to walk for a few hours before the treatment, results aren't usually favorable. Also relapses after treatment are usually fatal.

37

Grass tetany prevention

Really difficult to prevent in grazing livestock bc of all the variables

1) fertilized supplemented with Mg, works best with sandy soils. Expensive solution
2) give each cow 2 oz/day of MgO mixed into a range cube or with grain. Tastes super bad so it's hard to get them to eat it
3) limit grazing time or feed hay at night
4)feed lots of grain but it's expensive and defeats the purpose of grazing
5) can also feed Mg carbonate, MgCl, or MgP. The poorest source of Mg is MgO but it's cheapest

38

Mg deficiency may play a role in ______ in humans and animals

Osteoporosis

39

Which 3 minerals work together to maintain the osmotic balance in intracellular and extracellular fluids?

Na, Cl, and K

40

Which 2 minerals cause an animal to exhibit deficiency symptoms the fastest if deficient from the diet? Why is this bad?

Na and Cl. This is bad bc very few feeds contain enough salt (except seaweed, fish meal, and whey that hasn't been desalted)

41

Is K usually deficient in a normal diet?

No, both plant and animal product are usually very high in K. However, supplementation of ruminant animals has been beneficial in recent years (especially after shipping stress)

42

Where are Na, Cl, and K found in vivo?

Na: extracellular fluid (90%)
K: intracellular fluid (90%)
Cl: both inside and outside of cells

The Na:K makes an electrochemical gradient surrounding the cell, which regulates nerve impulses and muscle contractions, so these two things are impaired during deficiency of Na and K

(remember the sodium potassium pump)

43

GENERAL deficiency symptoms for Na, Cl, and K

Anorexia, reduced growth, unthrifty appearance, reduced productivity; and death

44

3 functions of Na

1) acid base regulation (93% of bases in the blood have sodium. Think of bicarbonate!)
2) reduced reproduction
3) osmotic balance (water follows Na into the sweat gland)

45

Only direct water pumps in vivo are in the:

Heart
Intestines (peristaltic motion)
Lymph system

46

Na deficiency symptoms

Reduced growth rate
Reduced feed efficiency
Reduced milk production
Weight loss
Drinking urine and licking the ground in salty areas

47

3 Cl functions

1) acid base regulation (associated with 66% of blood acids)
2) component of gastric juice (HCl and salts)
3) osmotic balance, especially of extracellular fluid

48

Cl deficiency symptoms

Depressed growth rate
Other symptoms are probably masked by Na deficiency symptoms which are very fast and overwhelming

49

5 K functions

1) muscle and nerve functions (heart lesions and irregular heartbeat can happen when deficient in K)
2) osmotic balance
3) acid base maintenance
4) enzyme reactions
5) helps cells absorb AAs and glucose

50

K deficiency symptoms

Abnormal EKGs
Growth depression
Unsteady gait
Muscle weakness
Depraved appetite (pica) and wool biting in sheep
Emaciation and death

51

Why is S the odd man out in mineral nutrition?

It has unique ties to AAs
It's not required in inorganic form by the body

52

S functions through its presence in organic metabolites. What is it used to make?

The chondroitin matrix of cartilage
Taurine
Heparin
Cysteine
Other organic constituents of the body
Feathers, gizzard lining, and muscles of birds

53

How does S deficiency affect sheep?

Reduced wool growth
Reduced weight gain of sheep and cattle

This can occur when you feed NPN instead of protein without supplementing S! However, these effects are the effect of inadequate microbial nutrition on which the host depends for synthesis of organic metabolites, so they can't be considered as direct effects of S deficiency

54

Is S toxicity a major problem? Why or why not?

No, the intestinal absorption of inorganic S compounds is low

55

Fe is needed for proper ____ to occur in cells

Metabolism

56

What percent of body Fe is found in hemoglobin? In myoglobin in muscles and hemoglobin in RBCs combined?

Over 50%; 60-80%

57

What 3 molecules can the iron in hemoglobin bind to?

Oxygen, CO, and water

CO2 is carried back from the tissues to the lungs but it's not attached to the iron directly

58

Is there enough Fe to meet requirements in most feeds? In milk?

Yes, no (especially in sows milk so baby pigs are susceptible to Fe deficiency)

59

How much hemoglobin can blood alone carry vs blood with hemoglobin?

1/2 (causes death by suffocation)

60

What plays the determining role for the homeostasis of iron metabolism?

Absorption (no excretion method!)

The intestinal mucosal cells control the amount of iron entering the animals body

61

Fe deficiency symptoms

Anemia (microcytic, hypochromic)
Diarrhea
Oral and skin lesions (due to tissue anoxia)
Decreased cytochrome activity (only in sever deficiency)
The thumps in baby pigs

62

Describe the thumps

Baby pig has a marginal iron supply when it's born that lasts for 5-6 days. Sows milk has low iron content (lowest of all livestock species) and rapidly growing piglets are using all of their body iron

63

The thumps symptoms

Pallor of the skin
Labored breathing
Rough hair coat
Poor and reduced growth
Respiratory infections

64

Treatment of the thumps

1) inject soluble Fe solution into piglet before 6 days of age and then 1-2 weeks later depending on the product being raised. This method guarantees the pig will get enough Fe
2) oral dose of Fe with a stomach tube at about 4-6 days
3) Fe supplement coated with something sweet or iron water in pig pen
4) give piglets a chunk of dirt
5) feeding iron chelated to AAs to sow may help, but just feeding Fe won't

65

Copper functions

Required for:

Fe absorption
synthesis of hemoglobin
bone collagen formation
elastin formation (blood vessels)
nerve transmission

66

Copper deficiency symptoms

Hypochronic anemia
Deformed bones
Ruptured aorta
Incoordination
Paralysis and infertility in cows

67

Copper (toxicity) imbalance effects

Tissue necrosis
Jaundice
Brown liver (due to Cu accumulation)

68

Cobalt function

Contained in vitamin B12, similar to sulfur in Met and Cys, so functions are those listed in B12

69

Cobalt deficiency symptoms

Called "wasting disease"

Listless
Anorexia
Weight loss
Normochromic anemia
Death

70

Cobalt (toxicity) imbalance effects

Thyroid hyperplasia (like goiter but goiter is tied to iodine)
Anorexia
Nausea
Diarrhea

71

Iodine function

Contained in thyroxin hormone

72

Iodine deficiency symptoms

Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)
Hairless piglets
Premature aging
Lowered basal metabolic rate

73

Iodine (toxicity) imbalance effects

Vasodilation
Skin lesions
Nausea
Hyperthyroidism

2-3 g per 70 Kg of body weight is fatal in humans

74

Zinc functions

Required by several enzymes such as:

Carbonic anhydrase
Phosphatase
Other enzymes

Important in carb and amino acid metabolism

75

Zinc deficiency symptoms

Skin lesions
Anorexia
Slow growth
Stiff joints
Reduced serum zinc
Impaired taste and dwarfism in humans
Parakeratosis in pigs

76

Zinc (toxicity) imbalance effects

Reduces copper absorption
Dermatitis
Corrosion of the GI tract
Diarrhea
Possibly death

77

Selenium function

Component of gluthathione peroxidase (removes toxic peroxides, interacts with vit E which is an antioxidant so it prevents peroxide formation)

78

Se deficiency symptoms

"White muscle disease":
Liver necrosis
Atrophy of the pancreas

When deficient simultaneously with vit E, results in muscular dystrophy in calves and lambs

79

Se toxicity (imbalance) effects

Blind staggers and alkali disease in western states
Hair loss from tail in cattle and horses
Hooves slough off
Reproduction failure
Anorexia
Death

Toxicity symptoms are noted with as little as 9 ppm se in diet

80

Molybedenum function

Component of enzymes like xanthine oxide

81

Mo deficiency symptoms

Anorexia
Poor growth

82

Mo (toxicity) imbalance effects

Diarrhea
Anemia
Stiffness

Treatment: feed Cu above the requirement as Cu reduced Mo toxicity and vice versa

83

F function

Strengthens bone and teeth
Helps prevent dental carries (1 ppm in water)

84

F deficiency symptoms

Weak bone and teeth structure

85

F (toxicity) imbalance effects

Bones and teeth lose normal color and become thickened and soft
Mottled enamel in children

2-5 ppm in water produce toxic results in children
Fluorine is a cumulative process


86

Chromium function

??
Required for body cells to be sensitive to insulin

87

Chromium deficiency symptoms

Impaired glucose tolerance (decreased insulin sensitivity, glucose not absorbed)
Cornea (eye) lesions
Anorexia
Poor growth

88

Chromium (toxicity) imbalance effects

Unknown

89

Silicon function

Calcification of chick bone and connective tissue

90

Silicon deficiency symptoms

Small joints
Growth depression

91

Silicon (toxicity) imbalance effects

Not fully understood.

Silicon in urine may be deposited in kidneys, bladder or urethra to form Calculi (water belly), but other factors besides silicon are involved

92

Sulfur function

Component of Met and Cys (S must be provided as these in nonruminant)

93

Sulfur deficiency symptoms

AA deficiency in nonruminant
Ruminant: reduced MCO fermentation, poor MCO growth in rumen, anorexia, and reduced productivity

94

S (toxicity) imbalance effects

Reduces Mo toxicity
May result in Mo and Cu deficiency

95

Manganese functions

Component of enzyme
Needed in collagen synthesis (so bone formation)

96

Mn deficiency symptoms

Anorexia
Reduced productivity
Delayed sexual maturity
Poor blood clotting
Weak egg shells and bones
Perosis or slipped tendon in poultry

97

Mn (toxicity) imbalance effects

Depressed hemoglobin synthesis due to reduced iron absorption

98

Minerals most likely to be deficient in livestock rations:

Macro:
Mg
Na
P
Ca
K (in ruminants)

Basically all macro besides S and Cl! "Magical NaP, Calvin Kline."

Micro:
Mn (young chicks)
Zn (animals fed high grain rations)
Se (area dependent)
I (area dependent)
Fe (baby pigs)

Basically all micro besides Si, Mo, Co, Cu, Cr, F, and B "Man, zoinks, Selena! I feel..."

99

Is mineral toxicity ever a problem?

Yes, in several areas of the US it's more of a problem than deficiency

100

How do you correct toxicities?

Mineral antagonisms
However, often the only solution is to dilute a feed with lots of the mineral with another feed that has little of the mineral

Feed formulation and or mixing errors can cause toxicities and deficiencies

101

5 methods commonly used to provide needed minerals to livestock:

1) adding free choice minerals in a self feeder (don't mix in wrong ratio bc then the animal will have to eat too much to satisfy all mineral requirements! Also if one mineral is too high then toxicity or antagonism could occur)
2) adding free choice mineral salt plus a separate free choice feeder for Ca-P so animals can be more flexible in their consumption. (Some scientists think that animals will only eat what they need)
3) adding free choice salt, free choice Ca-P mix, free choice trace mineral mix. This gives the animal more flexibility especially if just salt is the limiting mineral
4) adding the needed minerals to a protein supplement such as a range cattle cube (cube of cottonseed meals, vitamins, salt, Ca, P, trace mineral cube). However, if the animal needs more of one mineral it has no way to get it without eating more range cube or supplement, which isn't usually available
5) adding the complete mineral mix to a diet plus offering salt free choice. This allows the animal extra salt if they need it. Beef cattle feedlots and dairies usually use this method

102

Don't mix minerals and vitamins together (unless chelated) for over _____ days. Why?

60-90; the minerals may oxidize or bind vitamins, making them both unavailable to the animal

103

Should you feed unneeded minerals? Why?

No, it's costly and there is a chance of mineral antagonisms occurring

104

Why should you protect the mineral feeder from weather?

When rainwater accumulates in it, it will turn to brine and reduce consumption

105

How does a fresh supply of water affect mineral consumption?

It increases it

106

Why should aluminum be considered as required?

Al accumulates in regenerating bone
Al stimulates enzyme systems involved in succinate metabolism
Al has been reported to be essential in female rat fertility
Metabolic requirement unknown

107

Why should arsenic be considered as required?

Supplementation of As to purified diet has been reported to:
Increase growth of chicks
Decrease neonatal mortality in rats and goats
Improve birth weight

108

Why should cadmium be considered as required?

Rats fed little Cd show a growth depression when maintained in a metal free environment

109

Why should nickel be considered as required?

Dietary requirement reported for chicks
Deficiency reported in pigs, goats, rats, and sheep

110

Why should tin be considered as required?

Bc of a single report of a growth response to dietary Sn in rats kept in plastic isolators to prevent environmental contamination

111

Why should vanadium be considered as required?

Deficiency impairs reproductive efficiency
Beneficial effects of V on rats, chicks, and others have described tissue uptake and movement of V
V stimulates the rate of glucose transport into rat adipocytes
V ions mimic the effect of insulin on glucose oxidation in rat adipocytes

112

Why should barium be considered as required?

May be required for growth of some species

113

Why should barium be considered as required?

Might be required for growth of mice and chicks

114

Why should rubidium and cesium be considered as required?

May replace some of the vitamin K requirements

115

When did today's vitamin nomenclature arise?

1990 in Journal of Nutrition

116

Who came up with the name "vitamin" and when?

Casimir Funk, 1912, vitamine. Vita=life, amine= contains N (he thought they all did). But then the "e" of amine was dropped when he realized that some don't have N

Last group of nutrients to be discovered and quantified

117

Vitamin facts

-Throughout history, vitamin deficiencies have been a major cause of death in both humans and domesticated animals
-even though they're only needed in minute quantities, when they're missing or deficient productivity declines markedly

118

Are commercial vitamin supplements available? How expensive are they?

Yes, they're inexpensive

119

Define vitamin

Any group of a feed constituent essential in small quantities to maintain life but not themselves supplying energy (although some are very involved in intermediary metabolism)

They regulate many body reactions, but don't become part of the body structure

120

Are vitamins inorganic or organic?

Organic! But they're not carbs, fat, or protein

121

4 fat soluble vitamins:

K, A, D, E

122

12 water soluble vitamins

Ascorbic acid (vit C)
Thiamin (B1)
Riboflavin (B2)
Niacin (B3)
Pyridoxine (B6)
Cyanocobalamin (B12)
PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid)
Pantothenic acid
Biotin
Choline
Myoinositol
Folic acid (folacin)

Note: myoinositol and PABA are both made by normal gut microbes in animals and people. Under normal conditions, there isn't evidence for a dietary requirement. Some nutritionists still refuse to put them on the list of water soluble vitamins

123

Vitamins are added to feed components based on:

1) Vitamin activity found in the vitamin source (expressed as International Units, I.U., or US pharmaceutical units, USP, per Kg diet)

So IU/Kg or USP/Kg

These systems take into consideration the vitamins chemical structure (several of the vitamins are available in a variety of molecular structures that vary in vitamin activity) and also the digestibility and absorbability of the vitamin

2) weight (not ideal bc digestibility, absorbability, and activity are variable, but it works if these things are known)

124

What are 3 substances that are usually chemically related to biologically active vitamin forms?

Antivitamins, vitamin antagonists, and pseudovitamins

The problem: these don't have vitamin activity but the body can't tell that they're not actual vitamins. In addition, antagonists refuse to be replaced by the proper substances, which can shut down metabolism

125

Chemical composition of fat vs water soluble

Fat soluble: made of C,H, and O
Water soluble: CHO and also either N, S, or Co

126

Occurrence of fat vs water soluble vitamins

Fat soluble: plants in the precursor form (provitamins)
Water soluble: not in provitamin form (Trp can be convert to niacin but isn't considered a provitamin)

127

Physiological action of fat vs water soluble vitamins

Fat: associated with regulation of structural units including building, maintenance, and physiological action

Water: B vitamins play a variety of very important roles in intermediary metabolism. Energy transfer cannot occur without them

128

Absorption of fat soluble vs water soluble

Fat: absorbed along with lipid from the gut
Water: absorbed with water across the small intestine

129

Storage of fat vs water soluble vitamins

Fat: can be stored in the fat tissue of the body. The storage increases with the intake and can actually reach toxic levels in the body. It can be extensive enough to allow animals to survive, even flourish, on fat-soluble vitamin deficient diets for a long time (even months) without showing deficiency symptoms

Water: only stored in the body for a very short term use. A 2-4 day storage is as good as it gets. Therefore, a constant dietary source is much more important. B12 is the exception, there's significant B12 storage

130

Excretion of fat vs water soluble vitamins

Fat: excreted in feces
Water: B vitamins are generally excreted via the kidney into urine. B12 is also excreted via bile

131

Synthesis of fat vs water soluble vitamins

Fat: A, D, and E aren't made by microbes and must be supplemented in many rations

Water: rumen microbes can make the water soluble vitamins and vitamin K, so these don't need supplementation

132

Source of vitamin A

-B-carotene precursor found in green and yellow plants
-corn 1/8 value of green forage
-milo devoid
-fish oil (good source)
-yellow fat
-liver (polar bear)

Synthetic costs 2 cents/10^6 IU

133

Animal storage in vit A

Substantial reserves may be stored in body fat and liver if diet permits (results in yellow fat)

134

Stability of vit A

Destroyed by oxidation (hay curing)
This is why new corn has activity but 1 year old corn doesn't

135

In vivo functions of vitamin A

Vision
Epithelium integrity of eye and respiratory, alimentary, reproductive, and urogenital tract
Bone formation

136

Vit A deficiency symptoms

Night blindness or total blindness
Diarrhea due to poor nutrient absorption
Pneumonia
Bladder stones
Sterility
Fetus absorption
Crooked bones
Bone overgrowth

137

Vit A toxicity symptoms

Skin disorder
Hair loss
Fragile bone

138

Vitamin D sources

Ergosterol precursor
Found in plants
7-dehydrocholesterol precursor found in animals
Both animal and plant sources require sunlight to be converted to active form
Fish oil and sun cured plants are excellent sources

139

Animal storage of vit D

Some in liver

140

Stability of vitamin D

Good

141

In vivo functions of vit D

Calcium absorption
D2 works in all species except poultry
Poultry require D3

142

Vit D deficiency symptoms

Rickets (soft bones) due to poor ca absorption
Weakness
Poor egg production
Anorexia
Reduced growth

143

Toxicity symptoms of vit D

Hypercalcificstion of heart, kidney, and joints
Especially toxic to human infants

144

Vit E sources

Germ of cereal grains
Green forage

145

Vit E storage

Large amounts can be stored in fat and liver

146

Stability of vit E

Low, easily oxidized

147

In vivo functions of vit E

Antioxidant, functions with Se to detoxify perioxides
Cell membrane stability

148

Vit E deficiency symptoms

Membrane damage
Brain lesions in chicks
Degeneration of testes in rats, so it's a cure for rat impotence

149

Vit E toxicity symptoms

None in most species, nausea in humans

150

Vit K storage

Bacterial synthesis in the rumen and large intestine (for all but poultry, nonruminants have to practice coprophagy to get the benefit)

Green leafy materials, liver, fish, eggs

Commercial sources (menadione)

151

Vit k storage

Some in liver

152

Stability of vit K

Fairly stable.
Actively reduced by dicumerol found in spoiled sweet clover (dicumerol used at rat poison), therefore animals fed spoiled sweet clover need higher vit K intake to offset the dicumerol effect

153

In vivo functions of vit K

Required for rapid blood coagulation (needed for prothrombin formation which is necessary for proper clot formation)

154

Vit K deficiency symptoms

Hemorrhage
Reduced clotting time
Anemia
Weakness

155

Toxicity symptoms of vit K

Relatively nontoxic

156

Thiamin (B1) sources

Good sources include bacteria, forages, and other feedstuffs

157

Animal storage of thiamin

Low (3-9 days)

158

Thiamin stability

Destroyed by moist heat
Raw fish contain thiaminase that lowers thiamin activity and can precipitate deficiency symptoms

159

In vivo functions of thiamin

Carb metabolism

160

Thiamin deficiency symptoms

Edema
Anorexia
Diarrhea
Weakness
Convulsions
Brain lesions
Paralysis
Reduced growth
Polyneritis in poultry
Polioencephalonalacia in cattle
Increased blood lactate and pyruvate levels

161

Toxicity symptoms of thiamin

Relatively nontoxic

162

Riboflavin (B2) sources

Plants
Yeast
Milk
Eggs
Liver

Most nonruminant diets contain inadequate amounts so always add to nonruminant diet

163

Stability of Riboflavin

Good except destroyed by blue and violet light (riboflavin activity of milk in glass bottles and exposed to sunlight is reduced to 0 in about 8 hours)

164

In vivo functions of riboflavin

Component of FAD in electron transport chain
Energy metabolism
Protein metabolism

165

Deficiency symptoms of riboflavin

Curled toe paralysis and leg paralysis in chicks
Crooked legs, dermatitis, and reproductive failure in swine
Dermatitis in man
Ruminant deficiency unknown
Anorexia and reduced growth

166

Toxicity symptoms of riboflavin

Relatively nontoxic

167

Niacin (B3) sources

Leafy materials
Vasodilation
Distillers products
Cereals are generally a poor source
60 mg tryptophan and 1 mg niacin (expensive though)

168

Animal storage of niacin

Poor

169

Stability of niacin

Very stable

170

In vivo functions of niacin

Hydrogen transport (NAD) in glycolysis
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
Energy metabolism
Synthesis

171

Deficiency symptoms of niacin

Pellagra in humans
Dementia
Lesions on tongue, lips, and mouth
Nausea
Black tongue in dogs
Anorexia
Reduced growth

172

Pyridoxine (B6) sources

Cereal grains
Yeast
Bacteria
Legumes

173

Animal storage of pyridoxine

Poor

174

Stability of pyridoxine

Very stable

175

In vivo functions of pyridoxine

Fat, carb, and protein metabolism
Antibody formation

176

Deficiency symptoms of pyridoxine

Deficiencies are rare

Anemia
Dermatitis
Staggering gait
Convulsions
Anorexia
Reduced growth

177

Toxicity of pyridoxine

Nontoxic

178

Pantothenic acid sources

Soybean meal
Yeast
Bran-rich cereals
Corn and meat are poor sources

179

Animal storage of pantothenic acid

Poor

180

Stability of pantothenic acid

Fair

181

In vivo functions

Fat, carbs, and protein metabolism
Constituent of coenzyme A

182

Pantothenic acid deficiency symptoms

Goose stepping in pigs
Dermatitis
Eye matting
Paralysis
Hair loss
Fatty liver
Anorexia
Poor growth
Burning feet syndrome in humans

183

Pantothenic acid toxicity symptoms

Nontoxic

184

Biotin sources

Synthesized in rumen and intestines
Avidin found in egg white ties up biotin and can result in deficiency in animals fed egg white

185

Animal storage of biotin

Poor

186

Stability of biotin

Very stable

187

In vivo functions of biotin

Fat, carbs, and protein metabolism
Carboxylation reactions

188

Biotin deficiency symptoms

Dermatitis
Hair loss
Feather loss
Depression
Foot lesions
Fatty liver in birds
Impaired leg coordination
Paralysis in hindquarters of swine
Anorexia
Reduced growth

189

Toxicity symptoms of biotin

None

190

Choline sources

Animal and plant products
Methionine can serve as a methyl donor

191

Choline storage

Poor

192

Choline stability

Fair

193

In vivo functions of choline

Cell structure (membranes)
Fat metabolism
Methyl donor

194

Choline deficiency symptoms

Most likely in poultry

Fatty liver
Growth depression
Perosis in poultry
Anorexia
Reduced growth

195

Choline toxicity symptoms

None

196

Folic acid sources

Liver
Legumes
Tankage
Yeast
Bacteria
Soybean meal

197

Folic acid storage

Poor

198

Folic acid stability

Poor

199

Folic acid in vivo functions

Carb and protein metabolism
Nucleic acid synthesis

200

Folic acid deficiency symptoms

Anemia
Intestinal upsets
Growth depression
Anorexia
Reduced growth

201

Folic acid toxicity symptoms

None

202

Cyanocobalamin (B12) sources

Plants devoid
Protozoa and bacterial products are good sources
Liver contains some if animal fed adequate diet
Feces are rich in B12 (cow manure factor)

203

B12 animal storage

Poor

204

B12 stability

Fair

205

In vivo functions of B12

Nucleic acid synthesis
Carb and protein synthesis
Propionic acid metabolism
Maturation of RBCs

206

B12 deficiency symptoms

Pernicious anemia
Anorexia
Reduced growth

207

Vitamin C sources

Citrus fruits
Green leafy veggies
Tomatoes

208

Vitamin C storage

Poor

209

Vitamin C stability

Good

210

Vit C in vivo functions

Formation and maintenance of intercellular material in some species
Has a role in a various redox reactions in living cells

211

Vit C deficiency symptoms

Human, pig, bat, some birds and some fish:
Swollen, bleeding gums
Increased oxidation of vit C which increases the requirement
Loosening of teeth
Weak bones

212

Vit C toxicity symptoms

Possibly kidney stones

213

PABA sources

Plants are good sources
Liver

214

PABA animal storage

Poor

215

PABA stability

Good

216

PABA in vivo functions

Enhances growth of microbes and chicks

217

PABA deficiency symptoms

Very rare in livestock
Poor growth in chicks

218

Inositol sources

Plants

219

Inositol storage

Poor except in sharks

220

Inositol stability

Good

221

Inositol in vivo functions

Cures alopecia in mice

222

Inositol deficiency symptoms

Very rare in most livestock feeding situations

223

In general, vitamins promote:

General health and vigor, and are involved in mechanisms to fight stress and disease in the animal such as antibody synthesis

224

Main vitamins that are deficient in ruminants

A and probably D in special circumstances

225

Main vitamins that are deficient in swine

Riboflavin
Niacin
Pantothenic acid
B12
Choline
A
D
Possibly E

226

Main vitamins that are deficient in poultry

All vitamins except:
C
Inositol
PABA

227

Main vitamins that are deficient in horses

A
D
E
Thiamin