Anitbodies Flashcards Preview

Biology-5-Cell Recognition and The Immune System > Anitbodies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anitbodies Deck (15):

Define antibody

A protein that binds to antigens to help destroy.


What structure does antibodies have

A quaternary structure


What are antibodies produced by

Plasma cells


How does the specific antibody react with an antigen on the surface of the non self material

By binding to them, each antibody has 2 identical binding sites. They are complimentary to a specific antigen


What are antibodies made up of

4 polypeptide chains.

One pair are long and are called heavy chains

The other pair are shorter and known as light chains


What is the variable region

The binding site. It is different on different antibodies


What does the constant region do in the antibody

It binds to receptors in cells such as B cells


How do antibodies lead to the destruction of an antigen

They cause agglutination of the bacteria cells (each antibody attaches to 2 bacteria cell, causing them to clump together) clumps of bacterial cells are formed, making it easier for the phagocytes to locate them as they are less spread out within the body

They then serve as markers that stimulate phagocytes to engulf the bacterial cells to which they are attached


What’s a monoclonal antibody

When a single type of antibody can be isolated and cloned


What do monoclonal antibodies do with cancer cells

They are produced that are specified to antigens on cancer cells

These antibodies are given to a patient and attach themselves to the receptors on their cancer cells

They attach to the surface of their cancer cells and block the chemical signals that stimulate their uncontrolled growth


What’s indirect monoclonal antibody therapy

Attaching a cytotoxic drug to the monoclonal antibody, so when ur attached to cancer cells, it kills them


What’s the ethical issues with monoclonal antibodies

Involved in mice. They are used to produced both antibodies and tumour cells. Deliberately injecting cancer into mice

It is important that patients have full knowledge of the risk and benefits of those drugs before giving permission (some deaths have occurred)

Testing for new drugs presents certain dangers


Suggest why antibodies made of proteins rather then carbohydrates or fats, are more likely to be effective against a wide range of diseases

There must be a massive variety of antibodies as each responds to a different antigen, of which there are millions. Only proteins have the diversity of molecular structure to produce millions of different types


Distinguish between an antigen and an antibody

An antigen is a molecule that triggers immune response by lymphocytes while an antibody is the molecule that has a completely shape to the antigen and is produced in response to it


Discuss whether drugs trials should be limited to vouchers who are terminally ill with a condition that the monoclonal antibody is deigned to treat

+Removes the risk of healthy volunteers been harmed

They have less to loose

-Could also be unreliable as sample size may be smaller as it’s not typical