ANOMALIES OF FETAL NECK, HEAD, & SPINE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANOMALIES OF FETAL NECK, HEAD, & SPINE Deck (29)
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1

ANOMALIES OF THE FETAL NECK, HEAD, AND SPINE AKA:

NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS

2

ABSENSE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES AND OVERLAYING SKULL AND SCALP. (ALSO THE MOST COMMON CONGENITAL ANOMALY OF CNS)

ANENCEPHALY

3

WHAT IS PRESENT IN HALF THE CASES OF ANENCEPHALY?

POLYHYDRAMNIOS

4

WHAT IS THOUGHT TO BE CAUSED BY A BILATERAL BLOCKAGE OF THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES?

HYDRANENCEPHALY

5

TOTAL OR NEAR TOTAL ABSENCE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

HYDRANENCEPHALY

6

FAILURE OF PROSENCEPHALON (FOREBRAIN) TO DIVIDE INTO DOUBLE LOBES OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, THALAMI ARE FUSED.

HOLOPROSENCEPHALY

7

WHAT ANOMALY HAS A SINGLE COMMON VENTRICLE THAT IS HORSESHOE SHAPED AND ASSOCIATED WITH CYCLOPIA AND PROBOSCIS

HOLOPROSENCEPHALY

8

FAILURE OF LIP FUSION PRIOR TO 35 DAYS FROM CONCEPTION.

FACIAL CLEFTS

9

CYSTIC AREA IN BACK OF THE BABIES HEAD; OBSTRUCTION OF HINDBRAIN

DANDY WALKER MALFORMATION

10

WHAT 4 ULTRASOUND CHARACTERISTICS WILL YOU SEE ON US W/DANDY WALKER MALFORMATION?

1. CYSTIC ENLARGEMENT OF 4TH VENTRICLE
2. DIALATED 3RD VENTRICLE
3. VARIABLE DIALATION OF LATERAL VENTRICLES
4. CEREBELLAR LOBES SPLIT APART AND ABNORMAL IN SHAPE.

11

BONY DEFECT IN CALVARIUM, W/HERNIATION OF BRAIN AND/OR MENINGES.

CEPHALOCELE (ENCEPHALOCELE)

12

WHAT IS ASSOCIATED W/POLYHYDRAMNIOS AND 80% OF THE TIME HYDROCEPHALUS IS PRESENT?

CEPHALOCELE (ENCEPHALOCELE)

13

ABNORMAL INCREASED/DIALATION DUE TO FLUID IN CEREBRAL VENTRICLES MOST COMMONLY SEEN W/SPINA BIFIDA

HYDROCEPHALUS

14

ARNOLD CHIARI MALFORMATION AKA

BUDD CHIARI MALFORMATION

15

COMMON TYPE OF HYDROCEPHALUS & ASSOC. W/SPINA BIFIDA; CEREBELLUM IS PULLED THROUGH CISTERNA MAGNA.

ARNOLD CHIARI MALFORMATION

16

"BANANA SIGN" - SHAPE OF CEREBELLUM
"LEMON SIGN" - NARROWER PORTION OF ANT PORTION OF HEAD
"BAT WING SIGN" - DIALATION OF LAT VENTRICLES, BILATERAL AND SEVERE

ARNOLD CHIARI MALFORMATION

17

PATIAL ABSENSE OF CAVUM SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM (NORMALLY SHOULD POINT TO FRONT OF BABIES HEAD)

ARNOLD CHIARI MALFORMATION

18

HC MEASURES >3 STANDARD DEVIATIONS BELOW NORMAL.

MICROCEPHALY

19

ASSOC. W/TRISTOMY 18 5% OF THE TIME; BILATERAL CYSTS >10 MM HAVE HIGHER ASSOC. W/ABNORMAL KARYOTYPE

CHOROID PLEXUS CYSTS

20

MAJORITY OF CYSTS IN BACK OF BABIES NECK; 80% ORIGINATE FROM POSTEROLATERAL PORTION OF NECK

CYSTIC HYGROMA

21

ONLY SEEN IN GIRLS; ELBOW MALFORMATION

TURNERS SYNDROME

22

DEFECT IN SPINE DUE TO LACK OF FUSION OF TWO HALVES OF VERTEBRAL ARCH

SPINA BIFIDA

23

MOST COMMON SPINA BIFIDA LOCATION

LUMBAR SACRAL

24

MENINGOCELE (SPINA BIFIDA)

ONLY MENINGES PROTRUDE

25

MENINGOMYELOCELE (SPINA BIFIDA)

MENINGES AND SPINAL CORD PROTRUDE, CAN CAUSE PARALYSIS

26

OCCULT SPINA BIFIDA

SMALL DEFECT W/NO PROTRUSION OF MENINGES OR CORD

27

HIGH ASSOC. W/ARNOLD CHIARI MALFORMATION & ELEVATED SERUM ALPHA FETOPROTEIN LEVELS

SPINA BIFIDA

28

CYST ARISING FROM THE VENTRICLE THAT DEVELOPS AS A CONSEQUENCE OF PARENCHYMAL HEMORRHAGE.

PORENCEPHALIC CYST

29

DILATION OF VENTRICLES W/ACCUMULATION OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID USUALLY DUE TO BLOCKAGE OF DRAINAGE PATHWAYS.

HYDROCEPHALUS (AKA VENTRICULOMEGALY)