Ant & Med Thigh and Some Tib/Fib Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ant & Med Thigh and Some Tib/Fib Deck (114):
1

Which bone is the longest in the body, making up the thigh?

Femur

2

What bone is the second longest in the body, makes up part of the leg?

Tibia

3

What structure attaches the tibia and fibula?

Tibiofibular syndesmosis (included interosseous membrane)

4

What is the head of the femur covered in?

Articular cartilage

5

What structure on the head of the femur serves as the attachment point for it?

Fovea

6

What is the large, laterally places bony mass that projects superiorly and posteriorly where the neck joins the shaft?

Greater trochanter

7

What is the roughened ridge formed by the attachment of the iliofemoral ligament, where the neck and shaft meet?

intertrochanteric line

8

What is the abrupt, conical, rounded structure on the femur that extends medially from the junction of the neck and shaft?

Lesser trochanter

9

What does the lesser trochanter give tendinous attachment for?

Iliopsoas = primary thigh flexor

10

What other ridge structure of the femur joins the trochanters posteriorly?

Intertrochanteric crest

11

What is the rounded elevation on the intertrochanteric crest?

Quadrate Tubercle

12

What does the quadrate tubercle overhang?

Trochanteric fossa

13

What is the broad, rough line in the shaft of the femur for attachment on the adductor muscles?

linea aspera

14

What ridge extends from the central part of the linea aspera to the lesser trochanter?

Pectineal line

15

What does the linea aspera divide into?

Medial and lateral supracondylar lines

16

What primarily makes up the distal ends of the femur?

medial and lateral condyles

17

What separates the condyles posteriorly and inferiorly?

Intercondylar fossa

18

What is the shallow, longitudinal depression that is formed after the anterior merging of the condyles?

Patellar surface

19

What projections form superior to the condyles?

Epicondyles

20

What elevated structure provides attachment for the medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the knee joint?

adductor tubercle

21

What structures are formed at the superior end of the tibia that overhang the shaft?

Medial and lateral condyles

22

What structure separates the condyles of the femur?

intercondylar eminence (formed by two intercondylar tubercles)

23

Where do the tubercles of the tibia fit into the femoral condyles?

Intercondylar fossa

24

What is the broad, oblong structure (at the superior end of the anterior border) that provides the distal attachment for the patellar ligament?

Tibial tuberosity

25

What are the expansions at the medial distal end of the tibia?

medial Malleolus

26

What is the function of the fibula since it doesn't function in weight bearing?

Attachment for muscles

27

What structures are formed at the lateral distal end of the fibula to form the superior portion of the ankle?

Lateral malleolus

28

How does development of limbs begin?

As metameres that correspond to and receive innervation from the corresponding SC segments

29

When do upper limb buds appear and how do they appear?

During 4th week, as elevations of C5-T1

30

When do lower limbs bud and how do they grow?

Week 5, laterally from broader bases formed by L2-S2 segments

31

By the end of what week do the proximal parts of the limbs undergo a 90 degree torsion so they direct caudally (elbow) and crainially (knee)?

end of 7th week

32

What appear by the end of the 8th week?

Notches that appear as separate digits

33

Gaps develop between precursors of long bones for what to occur?

Flexures (future joints)

34

What is the name given to an decreased angle of inclination which can weaken the femur and limit abduction? Increased angle?

Coxa vara, coxa valga

35

What is the process of delivering hydration, blood, and medications directly into the medullary cavity when peripheral venous access is otherwise difficult or impossible?

Intraosseous infusion

36

What is the most common site for intraosseous infusion? What are other able sites?

1. Proximal tibia 2. distal femur, tibia, or fibula, proximal humerus, manubrium

37

What is the superior boundary of the femoral triangle?

Inguinal ligament

38

What is the lateral boundary of the femoral triangle?

Sartorius

39

What is the medial boundary of the femoral triangle?

Adductor longus

40

What is the roof of the femoral triangle?

Fascia lata

41

What is the floor of the femoral triangle?

Iliopsoas and pectineus

42

What is the space created by the inguinal ligament spanning the gaps between ASIS and pubic tubercle?

Retro-inguinal space

43

The retro-inguinal space serves as what?

A passageway connecting the trunk and abdominopelvic cavity to the lower limb

44

What are the two compartments and what do they contain?

1. muscular - iliopsoas and femoral nerve pass from greater pelvic to ant thigh
2. Vascular - passage of veins, arteries, and lymph from GP to ant thigh

45

What are two alternative names for the Adductor canal?

Subsartorius canal, Hunters canal

46

What is the adductor canal?

narrow fascial tunnel allowing fot the femoral vessels to the popliteal fossa

47

Where is the location of the adductor canal?

Begins where sartorius passes over ADD long and ends at ADD hiatus of ADD Mag

48

What is the anterolateral boundary of the adductor canal?

Vastus medialis

49

What is the posterior boundary of the adductor canal?

ADD long and mag

50

What is the medial boundary of the adductor canal?

Sartorius

51

As the femoral vein and artery pass through the adductor canal, what do they become as they exit the hiatus?

Popliteal vein and artery

52

What is the fascial tube that lines the vascular compartment of the retroinguinal space?

Femoral sheath

53

What is the lateral compartment of the femoral sheath?

Femoral artery

54

What is the intermediate compartment of femoral sheath?

Femoral vein

55

What it the medial compartment of the femoral sheath?

Adductor canal

56

What structure is at the base of the adductor canal forming an opening?

Femoral ring

57

What is formed by the closed femoral ring with extraperitoneal fatty tissue?

Femoral septum

58

What does the femoral vein receive?

profunda fem vein, the GSV, and other tributaries

59

The femoral vein is the continuation of what vein proximal to the adductor hiatus?

Popliteal

60

The femoral artery is the continuation of what artey?

External Iliac

61

What are the anterior branches off the femoral artery?

Superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, and superficial and deep pudendal arteries

62

What is the chief thigh artery that branches off the femoral artery?

Profunda femoris

63

What are the branches off the Profunda femoris artery and what do they suuply?

Medial circumflex - thigh muscles, lateral circumflex - superior head of femur

64

What artery helps the profunda femoral supply the adductor muscles via anterior and posterior branchess?

Obturator artery

65

What do the posterior branches of the obturator artery supply?

Head of femur

66

What does the paralysis of the quadriceps inhibit?

Extension of leg against resistance

67

What is the common condition in marathon unners in which softening of the cartilage of the knee occurs?

Chondromalacia patellae

68

True/False:The patella begins as cartilage and ossifies at age 3-6.

True

69

What can occur as an abnormal ossification of the patella

bipartite or tripartite patella

70

What muscle of the thigh can commonly be removed with low consequence for transplant for a damaged muscle?

Gracilis

71

What is the term given to a localized dilation of the great saphenous vein which can cause edema in the femoral triangle?

saphenous varix

72

Describe a femoral hernia.

Protrusion of abdominal viscera through the femoral ring into the canal

73

In 20% of people, an enlarged branch of what artery replaces the obturator OR joins it as an accessory obturator?

Inferior epigastric

74

What condition can the replacement of the obturator artery by inferior epigastric cause?

strangulated femoral hernia

75

What are the three compartments of the thigh?

Anterior, posterior, medial

76

What structure divides the three compartments?

Intermuscular septa (extension of the deep fascia lata)

77

What are the flexors of the thigh?

Pectineus, Iliopsoas, Iliacus, and Sartorius

78

What are the extensors of the knee?

Quad fem (Rectus fem, vastus intermedialis, lateralis, and medialis)

79

What are the adductors of the thigh?

Adductor long, mag, brevis, Gracilis, Obturator externus

80

What nerve primarily supplies the anterior thigh musces?

Femoral

81

What nerve primarily supplies the medial thigh muscles?

Obturator

82

What anterior muscle may receive a branch of the obturator?

Pectineus

83

What nerve supplies the hamstring part of the ADD mag, different form the adductor part?

tibial part of Sciatic nerve

84

What is the longest muscle?

Sartorius

85

What is the chief flexor of the thigh?

Iliopsoas

86

What is the muscle that lies in the deep superomedial thigh extending from obturator membrane and pelvis to the posterior greater trochanter, under the acetabulum?

Obturator externus

87

What is the opening between the aponeurotic distal attachment of the adductor part of the adductor magnus and tendinous distal attachment of the hamstring part?

Adductor hiatus

88

What is the primary artery of the thigh?

Femoral

89

What does the femoral artery turn into after the adductor hiatus?

Popliteal artery

90

What deep artery branches off the femoral artery to pass between the pectineus to descend posterior to the medial side of femur?

Profunda femoris

91

What does the profunda femoris artery supply?

3-4 perforating arteries pass through ADD mag to wind around femur to supply the muscles in the medial, posterior, and lateral part of anterior thigh?

92

What artery(s) branch off the profunda femoris?

Medial and lateral circumflex arteries

93

Which circumflex artery supplies the head and neck of femur primarily?

Medial

94

Which circumflex artery supplies the anterior gluteal region and part of the femur?

Lateral

95

What does the obturator artery supply and where is its origin?

internal iliac. ant: obturator externus, pectineus, adductors of thigh, and gracilis Post: muscles attached to ischial tuberosity

96

What are the two major superficial veins of the lower limbs?

Great and small saphenous veins

97

What forms the GSV?

Union of the dorsal vein of great toe and dorsal venous arch of the foot.

98

What vein does the GSV empty into?

Femoral vein

99

As the GSV ascends the thigh, the GSV receives numerous _ veins which is the major communication between _ and _.

Accessory saphenous veins, GSV and SSV

100

What veins arise from networks in the inferior thigh and enter GSV just before it enters the femoral vein?

Lateral and anterior cutaneous

101

Near termination, the GSV also received what veins?

Superificial circumflex iliac, superficial epigastric, and external pudendal veins

102

The union of what veins forms the small saphenous vein?

dorsal vein of the little foot and dorsal venous arch

103

Where does the SSV empty?

Popliteal vein in its fossa

104

What veins run obliquely, penetrating the deep fascia to compress in response to increased pressure?

Perforating veins

105

What are the deep veins of the lower limb?

Accompanying veins, anterior tibial vein, medial and later plantar veins from the posterior tibial and fibular veins

106

What nerve supplies the skin of the hip inferior to the anterior iliac crest and greater trochanter? Origin?

Subcostal, T12

107

The iliohypogastric nerve splits into anterior and lateral cutaneous branches. What does the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve supply? origin?

Superolateral buttock, L1

108

What nerve supplies the skin over medial femoral triangle? origin?

Ilioinguinal, L1

109

What does the Genitofemoral nerve supply? origin?

Lateral femoral triangle and anterior scrotum/labia, L1-L2

110

What nerve supplies the skin on the anterior an inferior aspects of the thigh? origin?

Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, L2-L3

111

What does the anterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh supply? origin?

Skin of anterior and medial thigh, L2-L4

112

What does the cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve supply? origin?

skin of middle part of medial thigh, L2-L4

113

What supplies the skin of the posterior thigh and popliteal fossa? origin?

Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh, S1-S3

114

What does the saphenous nerve supply? origin?

L3-L4, skin on medial side of leg and foot