Flashcards in Ant & Med Thigh and Some Tib/Fib Deck (114):
Which bone is the longest in the body, making up the thigh?
What bone is the second longest in the body, makes up part of the leg?
What structure attaches the tibia and fibula?
Tibiofibular syndesmosis (included interosseous membrane)
What is the head of the femur covered in?
What structure on the head of the femur serves as the attachment point for it?
What is the large, laterally places bony mass that projects superiorly and posteriorly where the neck joins the shaft?
What is the roughened ridge formed by the attachment of the iliofemoral ligament, where the neck and shaft meet?
What is the abrupt, conical, rounded structure on the femur that extends medially from the junction of the neck and shaft?
What does the lesser trochanter give tendinous attachment for?
Iliopsoas = primary thigh flexor
What other ridge structure of the femur joins the trochanters posteriorly?
What is the rounded elevation on the intertrochanteric crest?
What does the quadrate tubercle overhang?
What is the broad, rough line in the shaft of the femur for attachment on the adductor muscles?
What ridge extends from the central part of the linea aspera to the lesser trochanter?
What does the linea aspera divide into?
Medial and lateral supracondylar lines
What primarily makes up the distal ends of the femur?
medial and lateral condyles
What separates the condyles posteriorly and inferiorly?
What is the shallow, longitudinal depression that is formed after the anterior merging of the condyles?
What projections form superior to the condyles?
What elevated structure provides attachment for the medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the knee joint?
What structures are formed at the superior end of the tibia that overhang the shaft?
Medial and lateral condyles
What structure separates the condyles of the femur?
intercondylar eminence (formed by two intercondylar tubercles)
Where do the tubercles of the tibia fit into the femoral condyles?
What is the broad, oblong structure (at the superior end of the anterior border) that provides the distal attachment for the patellar ligament?
What are the expansions at the medial distal end of the tibia?
What is the function of the fibula since it doesn't function in weight bearing?
Attachment for muscles
What structures are formed at the lateral distal end of the fibula to form the superior portion of the ankle?
How does development of limbs begin?
As metameres that correspond to and receive innervation from the corresponding SC segments
When do upper limb buds appear and how do they appear?
During 4th week, as elevations of C5-T1
When do lower limbs bud and how do they grow?
Week 5, laterally from broader bases formed by L2-S2 segments
By the end of what week do the proximal parts of the limbs undergo a 90 degree torsion so they direct caudally (elbow) and crainially (knee)?
end of 7th week
What appear by the end of the 8th week?
Notches that appear as separate digits
Gaps develop between precursors of long bones for what to occur?
Flexures (future joints)
What is the name given to an decreased angle of inclination which can weaken the femur and limit abduction? Increased angle?
Coxa vara, coxa valga
What is the process of delivering hydration, blood, and medications directly into the medullary cavity when peripheral venous access is otherwise difficult or impossible?
What is the most common site for intraosseous infusion? What are other able sites?
1. Proximal tibia 2. distal femur, tibia, or fibula, proximal humerus, manubrium
What is the superior boundary of the femoral triangle?
What is the lateral boundary of the femoral triangle?
What is the medial boundary of the femoral triangle?
What is the roof of the femoral triangle?
What is the floor of the femoral triangle?
Iliopsoas and pectineus
What is the space created by the inguinal ligament spanning the gaps between ASIS and pubic tubercle?
The retro-inguinal space serves as what?
A passageway connecting the trunk and abdominopelvic cavity to the lower limb
What are the two compartments and what do they contain?
1. muscular - iliopsoas and femoral nerve pass from greater pelvic to ant thigh
2. Vascular - passage of veins, arteries, and lymph from GP to ant thigh
What are two alternative names for the Adductor canal?
Subsartorius canal, Hunters canal
What is the adductor canal?
narrow fascial tunnel allowing fot the femoral vessels to the popliteal fossa
Where is the location of the adductor canal?
Begins where sartorius passes over ADD long and ends at ADD hiatus of ADD Mag
What is the anterolateral boundary of the adductor canal?
What is the posterior boundary of the adductor canal?
ADD long and mag
What is the medial boundary of the adductor canal?
As the femoral vein and artery pass through the adductor canal, what do they become as they exit the hiatus?
Popliteal vein and artery
What is the fascial tube that lines the vascular compartment of the retroinguinal space?
What is the lateral compartment of the femoral sheath?
What is the intermediate compartment of femoral sheath?
What it the medial compartment of the femoral sheath?
What structure is at the base of the adductor canal forming an opening?
What is formed by the closed femoral ring with extraperitoneal fatty tissue?
What does the femoral vein receive?
profunda fem vein, the GSV, and other tributaries
The femoral vein is the continuation of what vein proximal to the adductor hiatus?
The femoral artery is the continuation of what artey?
What are the anterior branches off the femoral artery?
Superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, and superficial and deep pudendal arteries
What is the chief thigh artery that branches off the femoral artery?
What are the branches off the Profunda femoris artery and what do they suuply?
Medial circumflex - thigh muscles, lateral circumflex - superior head of femur
What artery helps the profunda femoral supply the adductor muscles via anterior and posterior branchess?
What do the posterior branches of the obturator artery supply?
Head of femur
What does the paralysis of the quadriceps inhibit?
Extension of leg against resistance
What is the common condition in marathon unners in which softening of the cartilage of the knee occurs?
True/False:The patella begins as cartilage and ossifies at age 3-6.
What can occur as an abnormal ossification of the patella
bipartite or tripartite patella
What muscle of the thigh can commonly be removed with low consequence for transplant for a damaged muscle?
What is the term given to a localized dilation of the great saphenous vein which can cause edema in the femoral triangle?
Describe a femoral hernia.
Protrusion of abdominal viscera through the femoral ring into the canal
In 20% of people, an enlarged branch of what artery replaces the obturator OR joins it as an accessory obturator?
What condition can the replacement of the obturator artery by inferior epigastric cause?
strangulated femoral hernia
What are the three compartments of the thigh?
Anterior, posterior, medial
What structure divides the three compartments?
Intermuscular septa (extension of the deep fascia lata)
What are the flexors of the thigh?
Pectineus, Iliopsoas, Iliacus, and Sartorius
What are the extensors of the knee?
Quad fem (Rectus fem, vastus intermedialis, lateralis, and medialis)
What are the adductors of the thigh?
Adductor long, mag, brevis, Gracilis, Obturator externus
What nerve primarily supplies the anterior thigh musces?
What nerve primarily supplies the medial thigh muscles?
What anterior muscle may receive a branch of the obturator?
What nerve supplies the hamstring part of the ADD mag, different form the adductor part?
tibial part of Sciatic nerve
What is the longest muscle?
What is the chief flexor of the thigh?
What is the muscle that lies in the deep superomedial thigh extending from obturator membrane and pelvis to the posterior greater trochanter, under the acetabulum?
What is the opening between the aponeurotic distal attachment of the adductor part of the adductor magnus and tendinous distal attachment of the hamstring part?
What is the primary artery of the thigh?
What does the femoral artery turn into after the adductor hiatus?
What deep artery branches off the femoral artery to pass between the pectineus to descend posterior to the medial side of femur?
What does the profunda femoris artery supply?
3-4 perforating arteries pass through ADD mag to wind around femur to supply the muscles in the medial, posterior, and lateral part of anterior thigh?
What artery(s) branch off the profunda femoris?
Medial and lateral circumflex arteries
Which circumflex artery supplies the head and neck of femur primarily?
Which circumflex artery supplies the anterior gluteal region and part of the femur?
What does the obturator artery supply and where is its origin?
internal iliac. ant: obturator externus, pectineus, adductors of thigh, and gracilis Post: muscles attached to ischial tuberosity
What are the two major superficial veins of the lower limbs?
Great and small saphenous veins
What forms the GSV?
Union of the dorsal vein of great toe and dorsal venous arch of the foot.
What vein does the GSV empty into?
As the GSV ascends the thigh, the GSV receives numerous _ veins which is the major communication between _ and _.
Accessory saphenous veins, GSV and SSV
What veins arise from networks in the inferior thigh and enter GSV just before it enters the femoral vein?
Lateral and anterior cutaneous
Near termination, the GSV also received what veins?
Superificial circumflex iliac, superficial epigastric, and external pudendal veins
The union of what veins forms the small saphenous vein?
dorsal vein of the little foot and dorsal venous arch
Where does the SSV empty?
Popliteal vein in its fossa
What veins run obliquely, penetrating the deep fascia to compress in response to increased pressure?
What are the deep veins of the lower limb?
Accompanying veins, anterior tibial vein, medial and later plantar veins from the posterior tibial and fibular veins
What nerve supplies the skin of the hip inferior to the anterior iliac crest and greater trochanter? Origin?
The iliohypogastric nerve splits into anterior and lateral cutaneous branches. What does the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve supply? origin?
Superolateral buttock, L1
What nerve supplies the skin over medial femoral triangle? origin?
What does the Genitofemoral nerve supply? origin?
Lateral femoral triangle and anterior scrotum/labia, L1-L2
What nerve supplies the skin on the anterior an inferior aspects of the thigh? origin?
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, L2-L3
What does the anterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh supply? origin?
Skin of anterior and medial thigh, L2-L4
What does the cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve supply? origin?
skin of middle part of medial thigh, L2-L4
What supplies the skin of the posterior thigh and popliteal fossa? origin?
Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh, S1-S3