Pelvis and Perineum Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Pelvis and Perineum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pelvis and Perineum Deck (119):
1

What are the components of the pelvis? [6 things]

Ilium, ischium, pubis, sacrum, coccyx, pubic symphysis

2

What are the functions of the pelvic girdle?

Bear weight, transfer weight, and provide attachments for muscles

3

What is the superior border of the pelvis?

Pelvic inlet

4

What is the anterior border of the pelvis?

Pubic rami, pubic symphysis

5

What is the lateral border of the pelvis?

Hip bones and obturator internus

6

What is the posterior border of the pelvis?

Sacrum and coccyx, SI joint and ligaments

7

Between what two structures forms the greater (false) pelvis?

iliac crest and inlet

8

Between what two structures forms the lesser (true) pelvis?

Pelvic inlet to pelvic outlet

9

What does the greater pelvis contain?

abdominal viscera

10

What binds the greater pelvis?

iliac alae

11

What binds the lesser pelvis?

Pelvic surfaces of hip, sacrum, and coccyx

12

What structure covers the obturator foramen?

obturator membrane

13

What forms in the obturator foramen serving as the passage for the obturator nerve?

obturator canal

14

What structure forms from the anterior sacro-iliac ligament and sacrotuberus ligament?

Greater sciatic notch

15

What structure forms from the sacrotuberus ligament and sacrospinous ligament?

Lesser sciatic notch

16

Describe the male pelvis.

Thick and heavy, pelvic inlet is heart shaped and small, pubic arch is narrow, obturator foramen is round, acetabulum is large

17

Describe the female pelvis.

Thin and light, pelvic inlet is oval and rounded and large, pubic arch is wide, obturator foramen is oval, acetabulum is small

18

What is the subpubic angle of a male?

~<=70 degrees

19

What is the subpubic angle of a female?

~>=80 degrees

20

What are the muscles of the pelvic floor?

Levator ani: puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus and [ishio]coccygeus

21

Which levator ani forms the u-shaped puborectal sling?

Puborectalis

22

What is the function of the levator ani?

assist w/ abdominopelvic cavity compression (when coughing, sneezing, vomiting, etc)

23

What is the function of the coccygeus?

support pelvic viscera, form part of the diaphragm, flex the coccyx

24

What are the contents of the urogenital triangle?

Ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus, perineal membrane, superficial transverse perineal, perineal body, puborectalis

25

What urogenital muscle is along the line of the pubic bone?

Ischiocavernosus

26

What urogenital muscle surrounds the male penis/ female puborectalis?

Bulbospongiosus

27

What connects the ishiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus?

Perineal membrane

28

What does the perineal membrane cover?

pelvic diaphragm, iliococcygeus, and pubococcygeus

29

What goes straight from pubic bone to point where urogenital and anal triangles meet?

Superficial transverse perineal

30

What is the anterior boundary of the perineum?

pubic symphysis

31

What is the anteroleateral boundary of the perineum?

Ishiopubic ramus

32

What is the lateral boundary of the perineum?

Ischial tuberosities

33

What is the posterolateral boundary of the perineum?

sacrotuberous ligaments

34

What is the posterior boundary of the perineum?

inferiormost sacrum and coccyx

35

What type of pelvic fascia lines the inner aspects of the muscles, forming the walls and floor of the pelvis?

Parietal

36

Which pelvic fascia directly ensheathes the organs?

Visceral

37

Which pelvic fascia forms a connective tissue matrix for the viscera?

Endopelvic

38

What are the joints of the pelvic girdle?

Sacroiliac, pubic symphysis, lumbosacral, and sacrococcygeal

39

What is the name of the joint connecting the axial and appendicular skeletons?

sacroiliac

40

What joint joint the two hip bones?

Pubic symphysis

41

What does the lumbosacral joint consist of?

L5 and Si vertebrae and IV disc, 2 posterior facet joints

42

What type of joint is the sacrococcygeal?

Secondary cartilaginous

43

What ligament aids in the transfer of weight from axial to ilia to femur and ischial tuberosities?

Sacroiliac ligaments

44

What ligament attaches the sacrum to the iliac bones, aiding in weight transfer?

Interosseous ligament

45

What ligament creates the sciatic foramen by passing from the posterior ilium and lateral sacrum/coccyx to the ischial tuberosity?

Sacrotuberous

46

What ligament subdivides the greater and lesser sciatic foramen by passing from the lateral sacrum and coccyx to the ischial spine?

Sacrospinous

47

What ligaments connect the transverse processes of L5 to the ilia?

Iliolumbar

48

What ligament reinforces the joint of the sacrum apex to coccyx base?

Sacrococcygeal

49

What movement does the sacroiliac joint allo?

Slight gliding and rotation

50

What movement is prevented at the lumbosacral joints?

Sliding

51

What artery is the main supplier of the pelvis?

Internal iliac

52

What artery does the internal iliac begin as?

Common iliac

53

What arteries branch off the anterior branch of the internal iliac artery?

Obturator, pudendal, inferior gluteal

54

Which arteries branch off the posterior branch of the internal iliac artery?

Superior gluteal, iliolumbar, lateral sacral

55

What artery forms at the bifurcation of the R and L iliac arteries?

median sacral artery

56

What does the Median Sacral artery supply?

Anterior surface of sacrum with 2 IV foraminal branches at each pair

57

The R common iliac artery divides into what two branches?

External and internal iliac

58

What artery branches off the external artery?

Femoral

59

What other two arteries branch off the femoral artery?

Inferior epigastric and circumflex iliac

60

What artery supplies the anterior abdominal wall?

Inferior epigastric

61

What artery supplies the wall near the iliacus?

Circumflex iliac

62

What artery branches off the internal iliac and supplies the ilium and lumbar spine?

Iliolumbar artery

63

What does the internal iliac artery supply?

Pelvic organs, gluteal muscles, and perineum

64

What are the arteries that branch off the anterior division of the Internal iliac artery?

umbilical, Superior and inferior vesical, internal pudendal, middle rectal, inferior gluteal, obturator

65

What are the arteries that branch off the posterior division of the internal iliac artery?

Sacral arteries, superior gluteal, and iliolumbar

66

What two arteries supply the superior bladder and some males' vas deferens?

Umbilical and superior vesical

67

What does the Obturator artery supply?

pelvic muscles, nutrient artery to ilium, head of femur, and muscles of the medial thigh

68

What artery supplies the inferior male bladder, pelvic part of ureter, and the prostate and seminal glands?

Inferior vesical

69

What does the internal pudendal artery supply?

main artery of the perineum (incl. skin and muscles of anal and urogenital triangles and erectile bodies)

70

What artery supplies the inferior rectum, seminal glands, and prostate/vagina?

middle rectal

71

What does the inferior gluteal artery supply?

Pelvic diaphragm (main supplier of), piriformis, quad fem, hamstrings, glut max, and sciatic nerve

72

what artery supplies the psoas major, iliacus, and quad lumb as well as the cauda equina?

Iliolumbar

73

What do the sacral arteries supply?

piriformis, sacral canal, erector spinae, and overlying skin

74

What artery supplies the piriformis, all three glutes, and the tensor fasciae latae?

Superior gluteal

75

What is a herniation of the urethra/vagina wall?

Cystocele

76

What is a herniation of the rectum?

Rectocele

77

What is the name given to a normal female pelvis? (Rounded inlet, wide transverse diameter)

Gynecoid

78

What is the name given to the normal heart shaped male pelvis?

Platypelloid/android

79

What is fractured when the acetabulua and ilia are squeezed together?

pubic rami

80

What is fractured by a fall from above?

Acetabulum

81

What is the defect that allows part of the vertebral arch to separate from the body?

Spondylolysis

82

What is the name given to a bilateral L5 spondylolysis that slides anteriorly so that it overlaps the sacral promontory?

Spondylolisthesis

83

What are the most common muscles torn during childbirth?

Puborectalis and pubococcygeus

84

What can stretching or tearing of the muscles supporting the urogenital organs cause?

Urinary stress incontinence

85

What tearing of the puborectalis (during childbirth usually) cause?

Fecal incontinence

86

What is the name given to a prolapsed urethra?

Urethrocele

87

What is the name given to a prolapsed bladder?

Cystocele

88

What is the name given to a prolapsed uterus, cervix, and/or upper vagina?

Uterovaginal prolapse

89

What is the name given to a prolapses rectovaginal pouch?

Enterocele

90

What are the four degrees of a prolapse?

1. halfway to hymen 2. to hymen 3. past hymen 4. maximum descent

91

What are the possible treatments for prolapses?

Kegels, surgery, pessaries (devices inserted into vagina for support)

92

What is a surgical incision of the perineum and vaginal wall to enlarge the orifice to attempt t decreases jagged tearing during childbirth?

Episiotomy

93

What can a fracture of the pelvic girdle cause?

rupture of urethra

94

What can occur due to a disappeared pelvic fat pad by starvation?

rectal prolapse

95

What is the landmark that provides the approximated level of important anatomical changes as the visceral and parietal layers transition?

Pectinate line

96

What is a slit-like lesion near the anal valve?

Anal fissure

97

What can occur due to the spread of infection and cyryptitis (inflam. of anal sinus)?

Anal fistula

98

What is a prolapse of the rectal mucosa?

Internal hemorrhoid

99

What is a thrombus in the veins of rectal venous plexus and covered by skin?

External hemorrhoid

100

What are the predisposing factors for hemorrhoids?

Pregnancy, chronic constipation, prolonged toilet sitting and straining, and any disorder that impedes venous return

101

What vein mainly drains the pelvic venous plexuses by interjoining veins?

Internal iliac veins

102

What do the internal iliac veins merge with to unite at L4/5 to form into the IVC?

common iliac veins

103

What are the tributaries of internal iliac veins into the gluteal region?

Superior gluteal veins

104

What veins provide collateral pathways to reach IVC or SVC, that anatomose with internal vertebral venous plexus?

Lateral Sacral veins

105

What is the nerve that supplies the mid thigh?

Obturator nerve

106

What is the origin of the obturator nerve?

ant rami of L2-4

107

What nerve supplies the hip joint and muscular branches of the knee flexors and all leg and foot muscles? Where does it originate?

Sciatic nerve, L4-S3

108

What nerve is the main supplier of the perineum and external ganglia, and the muscles and sphincters that go to them? And where does it originate?

Pudendal nerve, S2-4

109

What does the superior gluteal nerve supple and where does it originate?

L4-S1, Gluteus medius and minimus, and the tensor fasciae latae

110

What muscle does the inferior gluteal nerve supply and where does it originate?

Gluteus maximus, L5-S2

111

Where does the nerve to the quad fem originate and what other muscle does it supply?

L4-S1, inferior Gemellus

112

Where does the nerve to obturator internus originate and what other muscle does it supply?

L5-s2, superior Gemellus

113

Where does the nerve to piriformis origintate?

S1, S2

114

What does the posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh supply and where does it originate?

S2, S3, buttocks and uppermost medial and posterior thigh

115

What branches come off the posterior cutaneous that supply the medial buttocks?

Perforating cutaneous

116

What nerve supplies the pelvic viscera via inferior hypogastric and pelvic plexuses? Where is the origin?

Pelvic sphincter nerve, S2-S4

117

Where does the nerve to levator ani and coccygeus originate?

S3, S4

118

What is the excision of an ovary?

oophrectomy

119

What structures are in danger during an oophrectomy?

Ureters