Antacids Flashcards Preview

PM2B Spring Amy L > Antacids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antacids Deck (24):
1

What is acid indigestion?

A condition which results when excess acid is produced

2

How does acid indigestion cause acid reflux/heartburn?

If the excess acid is forced into the oesophagus

3

How can stomach ulcers be caused?

High acid concentrations can damage the stomach lining causing ulcers

4

List 4 possible causes of acid indigestion

  1. Over-eating
  2. Eating certain food
  3. Smoking
  4. Anxiety

5

How can histamine H2 receptor blockers help with acid indigestion?

  • Histamine encourages acid secretion in stomach
  • The blockers prevent the binding of histamine to the H2 receptor and so block its actions

6

How can proton pump inhibitors help with acid indigestion?

  • PPIs reduce the production of acid by blocking the enzyme in the wall of the stomach that produces acid
  • They do not neutralise the excess acid but inhibit the initial production of HCl

7

How do antacid compounds help with acid indigestion?

  • Antacids are weak bases = can neutralise excess stomach acid
  • They exhibit cyto-protective effects toward attacks against gastric mucosa

8

What are cyto-protective effects?

The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to human cells against harmful agents

9

List 3 examples of antacid

  1. Calcium carbonate = CaCO3
  2. Sodium bicarbonate = NaHCO3
  3. Magnesium hydroxide = Mg(OH)2

10

Why is it rare to find potassium in antacid medication?

It has a narrow therapeutic range - easily toxic

11

Why is it rare to find sodium in antacid medication?

Can cause/worsen hypertension

12

Why are fewer antacid medications being formulated with aluminium?

It has been linked with adverse health effects, especially with kidneys and brain developement

13

What is the reaction of antacids when they enter the stomach?

  • They react with HCl - only excess, HCl is needed for digestion
  • CO2 is produced - can cause bloating and further discomfort

14

What is the role of simethicone in many antacid formulations?

To reduce foaming from the reaction

15

What is a possible side effect of magnesium-containing antacid formulations?

May cause diarrhoea

16

What are the possible side effects of aluminium-containing antacid formulations?

  • May cause constipation
  • Can also interfere with the adsorption of phosphates in the formation of bones

17

What are the possible side effects of carbonate-containing antacid formulations?

May generate CO2 leading to bloating and flatulence

18

What is peptic ulcer disease?

  • Development of a peptic ulcer in the stomach
  • Thought to arise as a result of excessive amounts of gastric acid and pepsin

19

Name 2 treatments for a peptic ulcer

  1. Aluminium-containing drugs
  2. Antacids

20

Why are aluminium-containing drugs recommended for the treatment of peptic ulcers?

Mucosal protection agents

21

Why are antacids recommended for the treatment of peptic ulcers?

Contribute to ulcer healing

22

What are peptic ulcers?

Localised erosions of mucous membranes of stomach or duodenum

23

How do mucosal protection agents work?

Increase mucosal resistance or coat ulcer craters

24

How do alginates prevent acid reflux or heart burn?

Alginates float on the stomach contents to form a neutralising layer preventing reflux of stomach acids up into the oesophagus