Sterilisation Flashcards Preview

PM2B Spring Amy L > Sterilisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sterilisation Deck (40):
1

How do pathogens harm the patient?

Cause infectious disease

2

How do microbes damage a product?

Degrade API, make dose unpalatable

3

Which routes of administration have the greatest and least infection hazards?

  • Parenteral has the greatest risk
  • Then cream (skin is sensitive)
  • Oral has the least risk - stomach acid kills bacteria

4

Which order is microbe growth?

First order = logarithmic

5

What does CFU stand for?

Colony forming unit = 1 live microbe

6

What is Decimal Reduction Time (D)?

Time taken for a 10x reduction in microbes (i.e. 90% reduction in concentration)

7

What is the sterility assurance level (SAL)?

  • Level of sterility required for terminally sterilised products = 10-6
  • Therefore the probability of an item being non-sterile if selected at random should be 1 in 1,000,000

8

How is sterilisation time for an item decided?

Based on decimal kill rate (D) value

9

How is sterility tested?

  1. Take a sample from the item (swab, liquid or filtrate)
  2. Add to culture medium
  3. If no growth after 14 days = non-sterile

10

Define: Sterilsation

Totally killing all microbes on product/item

11

Define: Sanitisation

Cleaning a surface

12

What does a disinfectant do?

Kills microbes on a surface

13

What does an antiseptic do?

Kills microbes on skin/tissue

14

What does a microbicide do?

Kills microbes

15

What does a bacteriostatic drug do?

Stops growth of bacteria

16

List 2 methods by which heat is used as a sterilisation technique?

  1. Steam
  2. Dry heat

17

List 2 advantages of using heat as a sterilisation technique?

  1. Steam is very effective
  2. Cheap

18

List disadvantages of using heat as a sterilisation technique?

  1. Wets product/dries product out
  2. Can damage product

19

What application is there for using filtration as a sterilisation technique?

Solutions for injection

20

List 2 advantages of using filtration as a sterilisation technique

  1. Good for liquids/solutions
  2. Removes particles

21

List 2 disadvantages of using filtration as a sterilisation technique

  1. Only good for solutions
  2. Costly

22

What application is there for using chemical sterilisation?

Surfaces and equipment

23

List 2 advantages of chemical sterilisation

  1. Cheap
  2. Very effective

24

List 2 disadvantages of chemical sterilisation

  1. Usually needs to be removed from the product afterwards
  2. May damage product

25

List 2 examples of irradiation used for sterilisation

  1. Gamma
  2. UV

26

List 2 appllications of where irradiation can be used as a sterilisation technique

  1. Surfaces
  2. Packed products

27

List 2 advantages of irradiation as a sterilisation technique

  1. Quick and cheap
  2. Penetrates packet

28

List 2 disadvantages of irradiation as a sterilisation technique

  1. Surface only
  2. Safety

29

What is the disadvantage of using gas as a sterilisation technique?

Hazardous to workers

30

What piece of equipment is used for steam sterilisation?

Autoclave

31

What are the conditions within the autoclave?

  • 121°​C
  • High pressure
  • 15-30 minutes

32

How does the autoclave/steam kill bacteria?

Hydrolyses the proteins

33

What is dry heat sterilisation used for?

  • Typically for surgical instruments
  • Hot enough to char off some components

34

What are the conditions of dry heat sterilisation?

  • 170°C
  • 2 hours

35

Define: Terminal sterilisation

When the product is sterilised at the start and at the end

36

Define: Non-terminal sterilisation

When product is sterilised throughout the manufacturing process

37

List 3 chemicals used for sterilisation and how they work

  1. Phenols - disrupt membrane and denature proteins
  2. Alcohol - denature proteins and dissolve membranes
  3. Aldehydes - crosslinks biomolecules, one of the most effective disinfectants

38

List 4 conditions which influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents

  1. Type of micro-organism
  2. Concentration of micro-organisms
  3. Environmental conditions (pH, viscosity)
  4. Temperature

39

Which is harder to kill - gram negative or gram positive bacteria?

Gram negative

40

List 2 other processes that occur during the production of sterile products

  1. Aseptic handling
  2. Quality control and monitoring