Anterior and Superior Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

Medicine MD3001 cardiovascular system > Anterior and Superior Mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anterior and Superior Mediastinum Deck (48):
1

What are the boundaries of the Anterior Mediastinum?

between the sternum and the pericardium

2

What are the boundaries of the Superior mediastinum?

-between the thoracic inlet and the sternal angle at level T4/5
-posterior to the manubrium of the sternum
-anterior to T1- T4
-oblique from manubrium upwards to T1

3

Which structure lies in the anterior mediastinum?

thymus

4

Where is the thymus situated?

from the jugular notch to the 4th costal cartilage

5

What is its structure and function?

-bi-lobed
-T lymphocytes and recognition of self

6

What are the anatomical relations of the thymus?

-SVC and Aorta
-L+R Brachiocephalic veins
-pleura, phrenic nerves, trachea

7

What is the blood supply and venous drainage of the thymus?

-internal thoracic and inferior thyroid arteries
-left brachiocephalic vein

8

What are structures on the right of the mediastinum associated to?

veins and the right atrium of the heart

9

Which nerve runs with the trachea in the R Superior mediastinum?

R vagus nerve

10

What structure does the Right phrenic nerve run with in the Right superior mediastinum?

SVC

11

Which nerve runs with the aortic arch?

left vagus nerve

12

Which structure is the left phrenic nerve associated in the left superior mediastinum?

left ventricle of heart

13

What are the 3 planes of the superior mediastinum from most anterior to posterior?

-venous
-arterial
-trachea and oesophagus

14

What does the SVC divide into superiorly?

Left and right brachiocephalic veins

15

what are the branches of the L+R BCVs and which is medial?

-L+R internal Jugular vein, medially,
-L+R subclavian veins, laterally

16

What is the anatomical position of the bifurcation of the SVC to the L+R BCVs?

posterior to the 1st right costal cartilage

17

Where, anatomically, does the arch of the Azygous vein join the SVC?

posterior to the 2nd right costal cartilage

18

Where anatomically does the SVC enter the right atrium?

posterior to the 3rd right costal cartilage

19

Where does the azygous vein drain?

posterior chest wall

20

Where does the subclavian vein drain?

the upper limb

21

what are the internal jugular veins responsible for draining?

head and neck

22

Which veins drain into the Left BCV?

-veins from anterior chest wall
-internal thoracic arteries

23

Which surgical procedure are thyroid veins at risk and why?

-drain into the LBCV, mainly in children they protrude above manubrium
-hence are at risk during tracheotomy

24

How are the vagus nerves related to the BCVs?

R+L vagus nerves are medial to the R+L BCVs

25

How are the R+L phrenic nerves related to the BCVs?

lateral to the R+L BCVs

26

What are the 3 branches of the aortic arch from right to left?

-brachiocephalic trunk (BCT)
-left common carotid artery
-left subclavian artery

27

what level is the arch situated at?

T4/5

28

Where anatomically does the BCT divide and what structures does it give?

-posterior to right sternoclavicular joint
-R subclavian and R common carotid

29

where is left subclavian vein anatomically situated?

posterior and L of the trachea

30

Which vessels do the R and L vagus nerves relate to?

- R vagus nerve is anterior to the R subclavian artery
-L vagus nerve is lateral to the L common carotid artery

31

Which 2 nerves relate to the arch of the aorta and how?

L vagus nerve and L phrenic nerve lateral to the arch

32

What level does the Trachea start from and extend to?

-starts at C6
-Carina (bifurcation to L+R main bronchi) at T4/5

33

Which muscle alters tracheal diameter? Where is it located?

-trachealis posterior
-posterior between the ends of the C shaped cartilage rings

34

How is it associated with the oesophagus? which nerves associated with the trachea and the oesophagus?

trachea is anterior to the oesophagus and the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in-between

35

How does the right main bronchus differ from the left?

-wider
-shorter
-more vertical than the left

36

What alters tracheal diameter at rest?

smooth muscle contraction

37

What is the function of the oesophagus?

transport of food and fluid through the thorax and diaphragm into the stomach

38

What is the anatomical position of the oesophagus?

-starts at C6
-passes immediately posterior to trachea and anterior to vertebral column
-aortic arch is anterior on the left

39

What is the function of the thoracic duct? What is it a continuation of?

-lymphatic efferents from the rest of the body empty into the thoracic duct
-cisterna chyli

40

Which structures does it lie between? What level does it cross to the left side of the body?

- thoracic (descending) aorta and azygous vein
-T4/5

41

Which vein does the thoracic duct drain into?

the left brachiocephalic vein at the junction of the L IJV and LScV

42

Which nodes do the nodes of the lung and the lung hilum drain into? Where are these nodes located

-mediastinal nodes
-clustered around trachea and oesophagus

43

Which nodes lie superior and inferior to the tracheal bifurcation?

superior and inferior tracheobronchial nodes

44

Which vessels do the anterior nodes lie around?

around the brachiocephalic veins

45

Which of 2 structures do all nodes drain into?

-thoracic duct on the right
-communicate with deep cervical nodes

46

how are lymph nodes clinically relevant?

may be involved in the spread of tumour

47

What structure in the superior mediastinum can lung tumours affect?

the larynx causing a hoarse voice

48

Which nodes can become palpable with a lung tumour?

lymph nodes in neck

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