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Medicine MD3001 cardiovascular system > Vascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vascular Disease Deck (41):
1

What are the 4 subcategories of Vascular disease?

-arteries
-veins
-all vesels
-tumours

2

What is vascular disease of the arteries?

atherosclerosis

3

What is vascular disease of the veins?

-thrombosis
-formation of varicosities

4

What 2 ways does vascular disease affect all vessels?

-vasculitis
-radiation damage

5

What does atherosclerosis affect? How is it characterised?

-large and medium sized arteries
-lipid deposition, fibrous and chronic inflammation

6

Describe the morphology of atherosclerosis.

-atheromatous- fibro-fatty plaque
-core of lipid
-fibrous cap- smooth muscle cells, macrophages, foam cells
-necrotic centre- cell debris, cholesterol crystals, foam cells

7

What 2 complications can atheroma cause in the head and neck?

-cerebral infarction
-carotid atheroma- emboli causing transient ischaemic attaks or cerebral infarcts

8

How does atheroma affect the heart?

-myocardial infarction
-cardiac failure

9

What type of aneurysm is atheroma related to? What can happen to the aneurysm?

-aortic aneurysms
-ruptures leading to sudden death

10

What is peripheral vascular disease?

-atheroma of distal aorta, iliac, femoral arteries
-leads to ischaemia of lower limbs

11

What are the 4 potential consequences of peripheral vascular disease?

-intermittent claudication
-pain
-ulcers
-gangrene

12

What is intermittent claudication?

pain in calf related to exercise

13

What are the 6 different classifications of aneurysm?

-atherosclerotic
-dissecting
-berry
-micro aneurysms
-syphilitic
-mycotic

14

What describes true aneurysms?

saccular or fusiform

15

Describe the morphology of atherosclerotic aneurysm. Which vessel does it usually affect?

- saccular or fusiform, contains mural thrombus (thrombus caused by lots of turbulent blood flow)
-distal abdominal aorta, distal to renal arteries

16

What are the clinical consequences of atherosclerotic aneurysms? How does it present clinically?

-thrombosis
-embolism
-rupture
-obstruction of branch vessel leading to ischaemic injury
-impingement of adjacent structure

-presents as an abnormal mass

17

What is a dissecting aortic aneurysm?

wall of blood vessel is split into parts, split in tunica and hence blood can spill in-between the layers forming the blood vessel

18

Describe the morphology of dissecting aneurysm. Which two directions can the dissection occur in?

-usually begins with just an initial tear
-dissection can extend along the aorta retrograde towards the heart out distally sometimes to iliac and femoral arteries

19

what are the clinical symptoms of the dissecting aortic aneurysm? Describe the pain experienced as a result of the aneurysm.

-sudden onset of excruciating pain

- begins anterior in chest and radiates to back between the scapula and radiates inferiorly as dissection progresses

20

what is a berry aneurysm? which group is most commonly affected?

-aneurysm of the circle of willis in the brain

-young people

21

What is a berry aneurysm most commonly associated with?

sub-arachnoid haemorrhage

22

What is a capillary micro-aneurysm?

small aneurysms of branches of the middle cerebral artery

23

What are capillary micro-aneurysms associated with?What can they lead to?

-hypertension and diabetes mellitus

-intra cerebral haemorrhage

24

Which vessel does a syphilitic aneurysm usually affect?

thoracic aorta

25

What causes a mycotic aneurysm? Where are they most common?

-wall of the artery is weakened by infection of bacteria or fungi
-brain

26

What are varicose veins?

abnormally dilated, torturous veins produced by prolonged increased intraluminal pressure and loss of vessel wall support

27

What happens if venous valves become incompetent, with relation to varicose veins?

leads to stasis of blood, congestion, oedema can occur and pain, at risk of thrombosis

28

Where can varicosities arise?

-lower limb
oesophageal varices
-haemorrhoids

29

What is vasculitis?

inflammation of vessels

30

What is the pathogenesis of vasculitis?

-immune mediated inflammation- deposition of immune complexes, direct attack by circulating antibodies
-direct invasion of vascular wall by infectious pathogens

31

What are the 4 types of vasculitis?

-giant cell arteritis
-takayasu
-polyarteritis nodosa
-kawasaki disease

32

What is giant cell arteritis?

-granulomatous inflammation of large to small sized arteries
-temporal, vertebral, oplathmic

33

Explain Takayasu disease

-no or weakened pulse in upper limb
-granulomatous vasculitis of median and larger arteries of upper limbs

34

Which vessels are involved in Polyarteritis nodosa?

kidneys, heart, liver and gastrointestinal tract

35

Which group does kawasaki disease affect? What is it associated with?

-children younger than 4
-high fever

36

What are the two types of vascular tumour?

-benign
-malignant

37

Wat is a benign vascular tumour?

angioma

38

What are the two types of angioma?

-haemangioma -capillary and cavernous
-lymphangioma- capillary and cavernous

39

describe the appearance of the angiomas:
-what are the 3 different types?
-how do they appear?
-what structures do they affect?

-Juvenile= strawberry usually shrink over time, skin

-Capillary= ruby red spot, skin spleen kidneys

-cavernous= port wine stain, skin liver spleen

40

What is a malignant vascular tumour called? What can it affect?

-angiosarcoma
-skin, soft tissue, breast, bone, liver, spleen

41

What is Kaposis sarcoma?

-associated with HIV/AIDS
-angioproliferative tumour derived in endothelial cells

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