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Flashcards in Anthropology Exam 2 Deck (52):
1

Haab

360 Days + 5 Days
18 months of 29 Days + 1 “month” of 5 Days

2

Classic Maya Collapse

AD 760-900
. Political and religious system dramatically changed
. Resource depletion
. Warfare

3

Classic Maya Social Structure

. Kul Ahaw (king)
. Royal Family
. Sub Royal Elites
. Specialists
. Commoners (farmers)

4

Shamanism

Traversing the universe

5

Kul Ahaw

“King”

6

Maize God

Hun Hunapuh resurrected from underworld tree to create 3rd humans. (Modern)

7

Hero Twins

Hunapuh and Xbalanque

8

Popul Vuh

“Book of council”
Written in time of conquest (1500)
Stories date thousands of years

9

Themes in religion and ideology

Reciprocity
Sacrifice
Blood letting
Ancestor veneration
Regeneration

10

Wacah Chan

Ruler as world tree statues

11

Onion Effect

Layers of platform due to time

12

Provenience

3 dimensional location of an artifact, ecofact or feature within a site

13

Ecofacts

Any flora or fauna material found at an archeological site; non-artificial evidence that has not been technologically altered but that has cultural relevance

14

Artifacts

Portable objects created or modified by human behavior

15

Terminus post quem

Limit after which deposited

16

Law of superposition

The strays at the bottom of the stratigraphic profile, are older than the top

17

Stratigraphy

Study of the deposition and relation of these strata

18

Mapping techniques

EDM or LiDAR

19

Consequences of agriculture

Sedentism: settling down
Material culture
Complex society
Warfare
Intensification of landscape
Property

20

Horticulture

Growing yield on plots (still hunting, not intensive agriculture)

21

Domestication

Genetically alter resources to become dependent on humans

22

Cultivation

Human take care of wild resources of vegetation

23

Agriculture

80% of diet relies on domesticated foods

24

Holocene

End of ice age- things getting warm and wet!

25

Recently evolutionary adaptation

Nutrition- lactase
Maltese- alcohol

26

Ethnicity

Selected cultural and sometimes physical characteristics used to classify people into groups or categories considered to be significantly different from others.

27

Race

Biological subspecies, or variety of a species, consisting of a more or less distinct population with anatomical traits that distinguish it clearly from other races.

28

Calendar around

52 years
Tzokin and Haab

29

Long count

Counting from a fixed point (8/31 3114 B.C)

30

Baktun

20 katuns (400 years)

31

Katun

20 tuns (20 years)

32

Tun

18 unials (+ 1 of 5 kins) (365 days)

33

Unial

20 kin (20 days)

34

Eric Thompson

Famous for study of Maya Script

35

Sub-Disciplines of Linguistics

Descriptive
Historical
Socio-Language

36

Linguistic signs

Form + Meaning (signifier + signified)

37

Open vs Closed communication

Open- Subject to change
Closed- No change

38

Charles Hockett

Design features of a language

39

Design features of human language

Displacement- ability to talk to things not in space or time

Productivity- open to change
Prevarication- To lie
Metalanguage- to talk about language

40

Broca’s Area

Production of speech

41

Wernicke’s Area

Contemplates speech

42

Grammar

Rules system or language

43

Phonemes

Sounds we identify with symbols

44

Morpheme

Endings which give words significance (-ing, -ed)

45

Semantics

Study of words and what they mean

46

Syntax

Word order

47

Pragmatics

Study of language in context

48

Sapir-Whorff

Language overrides experience
Strong: linguistic determinism- language determines thought

Weak: linguistic relativity- language influences but does not determine thought

49

Absolute dating

Dates for archaeological materials based on solar years, centuries, or other measures of absolute time

50

Seriation

seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order.

51

Tzolkin

Calendar system of 260 days

52

Epigraphy

he study and interpretation of ancient inscriptions