Anti-Seizure Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anti-Seizure Drugs Deck (38)
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1

drugs that treat and prevent seizures ____ the likelihood of firing of neurons in various parts of the brain

- reduce

2

a seizure is caused by the transient (ordered/disordered), (synchronous/asynchronous) rhythmic firing of whole populations of brain neurons

- disordered
- synchronous

3

seizures are often referred to as an ____________ in the brain

- electrical storm

4

___ seizures are localized to smaller regions in one hemisphere of the brain

- partial

5

partial seizures are further defined as simple partial or complex partial depending on

- loss of consciousness

6

generalized seizures affect which hemisphere

- both

7

______ is a life-threatening medical emergency in which a seizure lasts for more than five minutes or in which two or more seizures occur within a five minute period without a return to normal status in between

- status epilepticus

8

mutations in ion channels that do what can promote depolarization


importance of this

- promote Na+ or Ca2+ influx
- reduce K+ efflux
- reduce Cl+ influx

- what anti-seizure drugs act on

9

_____ is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain

_______ is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain

what do anti-seizure drugs do to alter these

- glutamate (inhibit)


- GABA (stimulate)

10

MOA of Carbmazapine

- presynaptic VG Na+ channel inhibitor
- bind to inactivated Na+ channel and slows the rate it resets

11

MOA of Lamotrigine

- presynaptic VG Na+ channel inhibitor
- bind to inactivated Na+ channel and slows the rate it resets

12

MOA of Phenytoin

- presynaptic VG Na+ channel inhibitor
- bind to inactivated Na+ channel and slows the rate it resets

13

MOA of Valproate

- presynaptic VG Na+/Ca2+ channel inhibitor
- bind to inactivated Na+ channel and slows the rate it resets
- ALSO inhibits GABA transaminase slowing breakdown of GABA. also inhibits a second enzyme in GABA breakdown

14

action potentials travel down the length of the axon through the sequential opening of voltage gated ___ channels

- Na+

15

do the VG Na+ channel inhibitors effect the neurons that are not involved in the seizure

- no

16

toxicities of phenytoin

- gingival hyperplasia

17

toxicities of carbamazepine

- water retention
- hyponatremia

18

toxicities of valproate

- alopecia (hair loss)
- weight gain

19

MOA of Gabapentin

- presynaptic VG Ca2+ channel inhibitor
- reduce release of glutamate into synapse

20

MOA of Pregabalin

- presynaptic VG Ca2+ channel inhibitor
- reduce release of glutamate into synapse

21

do Gabapentin and Pregabalin affect GABA signaling

- no

22

MOA of Levetiracetam

- inhibits release of glutamate
- blocks vesicle fusion protein SV2A

23

MOA of Felbamate

- MATES COMPETE WITH
- competitive antagonist of ligand-gated glutamate receptors (Na+ channel)
- NMDA

24

MOA of Topiramate

MATES COMPETE WITH
- competitive antagonist of ligand-gated glutamate receptors (Na+ channel)
- AMPA
- GABA-A receptor positive modulator

25

toxicities of Felbamate

- aplastic anemia
- acute liver failure

26

toxicities of Topiramate

- weight loss
- kidney stones

27

MOA of Ethosuximide


used for what seizures

- post synaptic T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor
- slows depolarization and reduces circuit output

- absence only

28

MOA of Tiagabine

- increase synaptic levels of GABA by inhibiting GABA reuptake transporter on presynaptic neuron

29

MAO of Vigabatrin

- increases synaptic levels of GABA
- inhibit GABA transaminase slowing breakdown of GABA

- Valproate has the same function
BOTH START WITH A V

30

toxcities of Vigabatrin

indication for this drug

- permanent loss of vision

- only if other therapies fail