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2020 MHS microbiology unit 2 > antibiotics-12 must know > Flashcards

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1

  • "remove your negativity"
  • discovered in 1944 
  • first isolated from streptomyces griseus

 

aminoglycosides

  1. primarily used to treat gram-negative rods

2

remove your netativity, refers to what antibiotic and why?

how does it work

uses and limitations

aminoglycoside

  1. primarily used to treat Gram negative rods
  2. works- bactteriacidal
    1. enters bacteria through oxygen-dependent transport
    2. irreversibly binds to ribosomal 30s unit and inhibits protein synthesis
  3. uses
    1. UTI's, endocarditis, minor sking infections
  4. limitations
    1. increased resistance strains
    2. possible nephro-, ototoxicity
    3. used IV/IM
    4. dose adjustments are needed

3

  1. first class of drugs to be succesful against tuberculosis
  2. may exacerbate weakness with people who have Myasthenia gravis

 

aminoblycosides

 

4

"better together", describes what antibiotic?

what is the mechanism, use and limitations?

streptogramins

  1. mech - block translation
    1. dalfopristin binds 50s ribosomal subunit
    2. irreversible confirmational change = block translation
    3. confirmational change also allows for quinopristin to bind and cause premature release of peptide chains
  2. use
    1. against gram positive 
      1. staphyloccoci(MRSA), streptococci and faecium(VRF)
  3. limitations
    1. not active against enterobacteriaceae or otherROD gram negative

5

Dr.James decided to treat an infection with enterobacteriaceae with strepgramins. Is this a good choice, why/why not?

no

  1. limitations
    1. not active against enterobacteraceae
    2. not active against gram negative RODS
  2. a better choice would be an aminoglycosides
    1. ?

6

First class of drugs to be successful againt TB, and be effective. 

 

aminoglycoside

  1. bactericidal
  2. may exacerbate WEAKNESS in people with myastthenia gravis

7

bactercidal 

enters bacteria through oxygen dependent transport

binds irreversibly to ribosomal 30s unit and inhibits proteins synthesis

aminoglycosides

8

usage 

  1. primarily gram negative 
  2. treats severe infections caused by aerobic gram netaive oranismsm
  3. best modes of delivery
    1. IV,IM and topical 

what are the limtis

aminoglycosides

 

limits

  1. increased resistance 
  2. possible toxicity
    1. nephro, otototoxicity
  3. more commonly used via IV.IM
  4. dose adjustment needed

9

antibiotics with a pair of synergistic constituentts that have bactercidal effects, especially agains gram positive.

what is the mechanism of the antibiotic?

streptogramins

  1. bactercidal 
  2. dalfopriston binds to 50s ribosomal subunit, this causes an irreversble confirmation 
  3. the confirmation allows for a site that quinoprisitn cna bind to
  4. stopping translation

10

  1. bactericidal
  2. dolfopriston bonds to 50s ribosomal subunit, this causes an irreversible confirmation
  3. the confirmation allows for a sitte that quinopritin can bind to 
  4. stopping translation

what is the usage and limitations of this antibiotic?

streptogramins

  1. usage
    1. primarily gram positive
      1. MRSA,VRF, streptococci
    2. skin, pulmonary and genitourinary infection
  2. limits
    1. not active against
      1. enerobacteraceae
      2. gram negative rods
    2. can't use when pregnant
    3. short half life
    4. liver damage
    5. gram negative resistant

11

  1. approved in the usa in 2003
  2. found in soil bacterium called stretomuces roseosporus
  3. recenttly removed from WHO's list of essential medicine in 2019

what is the mechanism?

lipopeptides

  1. mechanism
    1. bactericidal
    2. binding via Ca2+ dependent mechanism
    3. insertion into plasma membran
    4. oligomerizatiton
    5. formation of K+ pore -> generates mass cell depolarization

12

  • bactericidal
  • binding via Ca++ dependent mech
  • insertion into plasma membrane
  • oliogomerization
  • formation of K+ pore -> generates mass cell depolarization

what are uses and limitations?

 

lipopeptides

  • usage
    • Gram positive 
    • multidrug resistant
  • limitations
    • Gram negative

    • Daptomycin 

    • pneumonia

13

  1. is hydrophobic 
  2. rifamicin
  3. treats: leprosy, aids related mycbactreium infections
  4. a family of bacterial secondary metabolites
    1. stretovaricins and rifamycin
  5. demonstrate antiviral activity

what is the mechanism?

Ansamycin

  1. mechanism
    1. bactercidal
    2. binds to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    3. inhibits RNA synthesis

14

  1. bactercidal
  2. binds to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
  3. inhibits RNA synthesis

what are the uses and limitatitons?

ansamycin

  1. uses
    1. tuberculosis
    2. gram negative and gram positive
  2. limitations
    1. resisttance can develop rapidly
    2. gram positive mutations in genes that code for RNA pol can inhibit binding
    3. gram negative decreased uptake of hydrophibic antibiotic can occur
    4. not to be used if patient has 
      1. diarrhea
      2. fever
      3. blood in stool
      4. E. coli infection

15

  1. rifampicin
    1. 1st and lastt antituberculosis drug in use
  2. wide spread use in treatment of 
    1. tuberculosis 
    2. leprosy
    3. AIDS
      1. related mycobacterial infections

ansamycin

 

16

  1. discovered in 1930's
  2. most widely used antibiotic
  3. gram posistive >>gram negative

what is the mechanism of this antibiotic?

B-lactams

  1. bactericidal
  2. inhibits cell wall synthesis

17

  1. bactericidal
  2. inhibits cell walls synthesis

what are the uses and limitations of this antibiotic?

beta-lactams

  1. uses
    1. penicillin susceptible
      1. streptococcus pneumonia
      2. meningitis
      3. steptococcal pharyngitis
      4. endocarditis
      5. neisseria menigitidis
      6. syphilis
    2. skin infections
    3. work best with gram positive
    4. IV,IM, oral
  2. limitations
    1. bacteria can produce b-lactamase, deactivattting b-lactams by breaking down the lactam ring
    2. side effects
      1. diarrhea
      2. fever
      3. rash
      4. super infections
    3. b lactamases develop resistance

18

alexander flemming gave this to his assistance for a sinus infection and had bacteria cleared out in a few hours.

beta lactam

19

tried and true

beta lactam

20

antibiotic for all

  1. isolated from streptmyces venequealae
  2. primarily used in low invome countries

 

what is the mechanism for this antibiotic?

chloramphenicol

  1. mechanism
    1. bacteristatic
    2. inhibits the activitty of peptidyl transferase in the 50S ribosomal subunit

21

bacteriostatic

inhibits the activity of peptidyl transferase in the 50s ribsomal subunit

what are the usages and limitations of this antibiotic?

chloramphenicol

  1. uses
    1. disease
      1. conjuctivitis
      2. meningitis
      3. cholera
      4. plague
    2. used for both gram positive and negative
    3. effective against mycoplasma
  2. limitattions
    1. inhibit mitchondrial protein synthesis
    2. shut down bone marrow
    3. gray baby syndrome
      1. rare life threatening conditino 
      2. lack of liver enzymes leads to accumulation of medication in bloodstream

22

first broad spectrum antibiotic

chloramphenicol

23

the trailblazer

first commercial anti-biotic

what is the mechanism of this antibiotic?

sulfonamides

  1. mechanism
    1. bacteriostatic
    2. competative inhibitor DHPS
    3. prevents folic acid synthesis
      1. doesn't interfere with mammalian cells

24

  1. bactteriostatic
  2. competative inhibitor DHPS
  3. prevents folic acid synthesis
    1. doesn't interfere with mammalian cells

what are the uses and limitations of this antibiotic?

 

solfonamides

  1. uses
    1. UTIs
    2. gram negative and gram positive
  2. limitations
    1. resistance 
      1. exogenous thymidine
      2. premeability barriers
      3. low affinity of dihydro folate reductase
    2. pregnancy
    3. RX interactions
      1. amylane
      2. progesterone
      3. dexketoprofen
      4. mecamylamine

25

3% are allergic to arylamine group of this drug

sulfonamides

26

  1. peaking early
  2. teeth discoloration
  3. photosensitivity
  4. Tx

what is the mechanism of this drug?

tetracycline

  1. bacteriostatic
  2. reversibly binds to 30S
  3. blocking incoming aminoacyl ttRNA from binding to ribosomal acceptor site
  4. preventing elongation

27

  1. bacteriostatic
  2. reversibly binds to 30s
  3. blockingincoming aminoacyl tRNA from binding to ribosomal acceptor site
  4. preventing elongation

what are the uses and limtations of this antibiotic?

tetracylcine

  1. uses
    1. diseases
      1. acne
      2. chlamydia
      3. cholera
      4. plague
      5. UTI
      6. anthrax
      7. URI
    2. broad spectrum
      1. Tx protozoan
  2. limitations
    1. pregnancy
    2. breast feeding 
    3. young children
    4. renal failure
    5. liver disease

28

causes yellow discoloration

tetracycline

29

  1. the specialist
  2. narrow spectrum
  3. drug of last resort

what is the mechanism of this antibiotic?

oxazolindinones

  1. bacteriostatic 
  2. binds to 50s ribosomal subunit 
  3. distorts site for tRNA
  4. inhibits formatiton of 70S

 

30

  1. bacteriostatic
  2. binds tto 50S ribosomal subunit
  3. distorts site for tRNA
  4. inhibits formation of 70S

what are the uses and limitations for this antibiotic?

oxazolindinones

  1. uses
    1. active against gram positive rods and cocci
  2. limitations
    1. ineffective towards gram negative bacteria