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2020 MHS microbiology unit 2 > Urogenital 1 of 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urogenital 1 of 2 Deck (36)
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1

what is the usual cause of UTI?

Escherichia coli, and other members of the Entercacteriaceae familyu

2

comprises 1% of all out-patient visits

UTI

3

what are the affects of spermicide use?

  1. spermicide increases colonization of vagina with uropathogens
  2. spermicides increase adherence of Escherichia coli to vaginal epithelial cells

4

infection of the bladder wall

cystitis

  1. infection of the bladder wall
  2. symptoms
    1. frequency and urgency to urinate and dysuria(painful urination)
    2. pain and tenderness in suprapubic area
    3. urine
      1. malodorous
      2. bloody
    4. bacteria and WBC found in urine

5

most commonly follows bladder infection

pyelonephritis

  1. an infection of the kidney and renal pelvis
  2. most commonly follows a bladder infection
  3. acute
    1. WBCs
    2. cellular casts 
    3. bacteria 
    4. protein appear in the urine
  4. chronic
    1. gradual nephron loss 
    2. renal failure

6

inflammation of the urethra usually caused by UTI

urethritis

7

inflammation in the nephrons, the glomerulus becomes leaky

glomerulonephritis

  1. inflammation of the glomeruli in the nephrons 
  2. glomerular capillary network becomes leaky allowing plasma protein and blood cells to be excreted in the urine

8

inflammation of the prostat gland usually follows what process?

9

what are the three virulence factors for bacteria that cause UTIs?

Virulaence factors

  1. Adherence to vaginal and uroepithelial cells
  2. cytotoxic, necrotizing factors
  3. hemolysin

10

what determines the anatomical location of infection?

Adhesive properties determine the anatomical location of infection

  1. adhesion to vaginal and periurethral cells
    1. avle to coloinize the urethral opening

11

gram negative rods 

facultative anaeroves

most common source of UTI

  1. what is the
    1. pathogenicity
    2. treatment

E. coli

  1. gram negative rods
  2. facultative anaerobes 
  3. most common source of urinary tract infections 
  4. occurs after contaimination of the genital area with feces
  5. pathogenicity
    1. adhere to mucosa via pili
      1. causes tissue damage
    2. endotoxin (LPS) causes inflammation
  6. treatment
    1. penicillin
    2. ciprofloxacin

12

E coli

  1. type
  2. O2
  3. causes
  4. pathogenicity
  5. treatment

  1. E coli
  2. gram negative rods
  3. facultative anaerobes
  4. most common source of UTI
    1. occurs after contamination of the genital area with feces
  5. pathogenicity
    1. adhere to mucosa via pili
      1. causes tissue damage
    2. endotoxin (LPS) causes inflammation
  6. Treatment
    1.  penicillin
    2. ciprofloxcin

13

gram positive cocci

honeymoon cystitis

staphylococcus saprophyticus

  1. gram positive cocci
  2. biochemical attributes
    1. nitrite negative
    2. nonhemolytic (y-hemolysis)
    3. caralase positive
    4. cagulase negative 
    5. novobiocin resistant
  3. UTI occurs in sexually-active women
    1. honeymoon cystitis
    2. 5-15% of UTIs

14

staphylococcus saprophyticus

  1. type
  2. biochemical attribute
  3. occurs in

staphyloxoxxus saprophyticus

  1. gram-positive cocci
  2. biochemical attributes
    1. nitirite negative
    2. nonhemolytic (Y-hemolysis)
    3. catalse positive
    4. coagulase negative 
    5. novobicin resistant
  3. UTI occurs in sexually active women
    1. honymoon cystits
    2. 5-15% o UTIs

15

Proteus...

  1. type 
  2. O2
  3. type of pathogen
  4. enteric ...
  5. important enzyme
  6. motility

  1. gram negative rods
  2. facultative anaerobes
  3. opportunistic pathogens
    1. via catheters
  4. enteric bacteria
    1. similar to E. coli, salmonella, shigella, enterobacter, serratia
  5. urease posisitve
    1. converts urea to ammonia 
      1. raising pH
  6. higly motile and swarm across agar media
    1. peritricous flagella

16

urease positive and highly motile

  1. gram negative rods

  2. facultative anaerobes

  3. opportunistic pathogens

    1. via catheters

  4. enteric bacteria

    1. similar to E. coli, salmonella, shigella, enterobacter, serratia

  5. urease posisitve

    1. converts urea to ammonia 

    2. raising pH

  6. highly motile and swarm across agar media

    1. peritricous flagella

17

group D streptococci

  1. group
  2. location of normal flora
  3. causes
  4. enzyme
  5. treatment

enterococcus faecalis

  1. group D streprococci
    1. classification of the human pathogen pathoegen carbohydrate
    2. allow them to be typed
  2. GI tract normal flora
  3. causes
    1. endocarditis 
    2. cystitis
    3. wound infections
    4. gamma hemolysis
  4. enzyme
    1. catalase negative
  5. treatment
    1. amoxacillin
    2. ampicillin
    3. vancomycin

18

grows on blood agar, bile-esculin agar and 6.5%NaCl

enterococcus faecalis

  1. group D streptococcus
    1. human pathogens are A,B,Dand G
  2. Gi tract normal flora
  3. causes
    1. endocarditis
      1. bacteremia
    2. cystitis
    3. wound infection
  4. virulence
    1. development of antibiotic resistance
  5. treatment
    1. amoxicillin
    2. ampicillin
    3. vancomycin

19

nosocomial UTIs

  1. 66-86% follow urinary catheterization

20

differentiate the catherter associated UTI between where they reside normally

  1. normal human flora
    1. E. coli
    2. klebsiella
    3. proteus
    4. enterococcus sp
    5. enterobacter
    6. candida
  2. uncommon human flora
    1. serratia marcescens
    2. pseudomonas cepacia

21

22

can be RBC, WBC,granular or broad waxy

casts- indicate damage or infection of the kidneys

23

increase numbers in poisoning with ehylene glycol, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, following large vit C intake

calcium oxalate crystals

  1. common in acid and neutral urines and processed from oxalate-rich foods such as tomatoes, spinach,rhubarb, garlic, oranges and asparagus

24

common in acid and neutral urines and processed from oxalate-rich foods such as tomatoes, spinach,rhubarb, garlic, oranges and asparagus

  1. calcium oxalate crystals
    1. increase numbers in poisoning with ehylene glycol, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, following large vit C intake

25

coffin lids

triple phosphate crystals

  1. commonly seen in alkaline urine
  2. may not be clinically significant 
    1. found in normal urine
  3. associated with the presence of urea-splitting bacteria

26

27

commonly seen in alkaline urine

associated with the presence of urea splitting bacteria

triple phosphate crytsals

coffin lids

28

normal crystals seen in acidic urine

amorphous urate crystals

  1. characterization
    1. normal crystals seen in acidic urine
    2. appear microscopically as yellow-brown granules
    3. frequently encountered in specimens that have been refridgerated
    4. produce pink sediment

29

presence could mean risk of kidney stone

uric acid crystals

  1. presence could indicate increased risk of uric acid kidney stones
  2. presence correlates with gout, purine metabolism disorders (lesch-nyhan syndrome)

30

presence correlates with gout

uric acid crystals

  1. presence could indicate increased risk of uric acid kidney stones
  2. presence correlates with gout, purine metabolic disorders (Lesch-Nyhan syndrome)