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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (46)
1

Penicilins- cidal or static

cidal

2

types of penicillins

Penicillinase susceptible- narrow spectrum
Penicillinase resistant- narrow spectrum
Penicillinase susceptible- extended spectrum

3

Penicillinase susceptible narrow spectrum- drugs

Pen G
Pen V

4

Penicillinase resistant narrow spectrum

Nafcillin
Methicillin
Oxacillin

5

Penicillinase susceptible extended spectrum

Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Ticarcillin
Piparcillin

6

Penicillins- MOA

Bind penicillin binding proteins (PBP) and inhibit transpeptidation.
Activate autolytic enzymes

7

Penicillins- MOR

penicillinase- staph, Gram - bacillin
change PBP- MRSA, PRSP
Porin structure- pseudomonas

8

Effect of gastric acid on penicillins

inactivates some penicillins ie Pen G

9

Penicillin- elimination

mostly renal
Nafcillin is exception- eliminated through bile

10

Penicillin- t1/2

normally around 60 min

11

Penicillins- Repository form

Benzathine allows it to have a much longer t 1/2

12

Penicillins- AE

Hypersensitivity rxn- cross reactivity among penicillins
GI rxn- N/D, superinfection
Maculopapular rash- rxn to ampicillin

13

Pen G- uses

common streptococci
Pneumococci
Enterococci (synergy w/ aminoglycosides)
Meningogococci
Treponema pallidum- and other spirochetes

14

Nafcillin, Oxacillin- use

Staph

15

Amoxicillin, Ampicillin- use

Streptococci
E. Coli
H. Flu
Moraxella
Listeria
H. Pylori

16

Ticarcillin, Piparcillin- use

Gram neg including pseudomonas (synergy with aminoglycosides)

17

Penicillinase inhibitors

Used with penicillinase resistant extended spectrum penicillins. Allows for inc coverage
Amoxicillin- CA
Ampicillin- sublactam
Piparcillin- Tazobactam
Ticarcillin- CA

18

Cephalosporins- MOA

same as penicillin

19

Cephalosporin- classification

based on generations

20

Cephalosporins- elimination

Renal except for Cefoperazone and Cefriaxone

21

Cephalosporins- CNS penetration

1st and 2nd gen do not penetrate CSF
3rd and 4th gen- do penetrate CSF

22

Cephalosporin- AE

allergic response
N/D
opportunistic infxn
Cefotetan, Cefoperazone- hypothrombenemia and disulfram rxn with alcohol

23

1st gen cephalosporin- names

Cefalozin
Cephalexin

24

1st gen Cephalosporin- use

Gram + cocci
E Coli
Klebsiella
Proteus

25

2nd gen Cephalosporin- names

Cefotetan
Cefaclor

26

2nd gen Cephalosporins- uses

Gram neg bacilli- including b. fragillis (Cefotetan)
H. flu
Moraxella

27

3rd gen cephalosporin- names

Ceffazidime
Ceftriaxone
Cefixime

28

3rd gen cephalosporin- uses

G +/- cocci
G- bacilli

29

Ceftazime- use

Pseudomonas

30

Ceftriazone, Cefixime

Gonococci

31

4th gen- names

Cefepime

32

4th gen- use

G+ activity of Gen 1 w/ G- of Gen 3

33

Carbepenems- drugs

Imipenem
Meropenem

34

Carbepenems- cidal vs static

cidal

35

Carbepenems- uses

Gram +/-
including anaerobes

36

Carbepenems- method of admin

IV

37

Carbepenems- method of elim

Renal- so dose must be adjusted in RF

38

Carbepenems- role of cilastatin

Imipenem used to be given with Cislastatin- b/c that would inhibit its excretion

39

Carbepenem- toxicity

N/D
rash
seizures @ high doses

40

Vancomycin- MOA

binds to D-Ala-D-Ala terminal of the pentapeptide chain of peptidoglycans

41

Vancomycin- MOR

enterococci switch D-Ala-D-Ala --> D-Ala-D-Lactate

42

Vancomycin- Cidal vs static

Cidal

43

Vancomycin- admin

Parenteral form- used penetrates most tissues
Oral form- stays in the gut

44

Vancomycin- elim

Renal

45

Vancomycin- use

1st line- MRSA
2nd line- pseudomembranous colitis

46

Vancomycin- AE

Chills
fevers
diffuse flushing
Ototo and nephrotoxicity