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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (39):
1

Penecillins

1. Most effective against GRAM-POSITIVE bacteria
2. Kill bacteria by disrupting CELL WALL w/ beta-lactam ring
3. Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
4. One of the SAFEST classes of antibiotic
5. If client is allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
***Take on empty stomach**

2

Penicillin G
-Mechanism of action

KILL Bacteria by disrupting their cell wall

3

Penicillin G
-Primary Use

Used against GRAM-Positive bacteria like:
-Streptococci
-Pneumococci
-Staphylococci

4

Penicillin G
-Adverse effects

-Diarrhea
-N/V
-ANAPHYLAXIS
-superinfection

Common to have allergy to penicillin
Well tolerated drug

5

Penicillin G
-Monitor Pt for...

Monitor the pt for:
1. Hyperkalemia & kypernatremia
2. Monitor cardiac status, including ECG changes

6

Cephalosporins

-Similar in structure and function to penicillins
-Widely prescribed anti-infective class
-Cross sensitivity to penicillin's & watch for allergies
-4 generations
-can give disulfiram or Antabuse like reaction w/ alcohol

**Take with FOOD**

7

cefotaxime (Claforan)
-Mechanism of action

To act w/ broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms

8

cefotaxime (Claforan)
-Primary Use

Serious infections of lower respiratory tract, CNS, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints

9

cefotaxime (Claforan)
-Adverse Effects

1. Hypersensitivity
2. Anaphylaxis
3. Diarrhea
4. N/V

10

Cephalosporins
-3rd and 4th generation

Can enter the cerebral spinal fluid

11

Cephalosporins
-Assessments

1. Assess for presence or history of bleeding disorders
-Cephalosporins may reduce prothrombin levels
2. Assess renal and hepatic function
3. AVOID alcohol
-Some cephalosporins cause disulfiram (Antabuse)-like reaction w/ alcohol

12

Tetracyclines

1. Some of the broadest spectrum of any antibiotic class
2. Avoid other minerals w/ it; especially CALCIUM
3. Discolors teeth
4. Causes bone deformity in the fetus
5. only used on a few diseases due to resistance
5. Pregnant or women on oral contraceptives should not be on it
6. Can affect the liver and kidneys

13

Tetracycline
-Mechanism of action

Effective against BROAD RANGE of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms

14

Tetracycline
-Primary Use

Used against:
1. Chamydiae
2. rickettsiae
3. mycoplasma
4. H. pylori
5. Lyme disease

15

Tetracycline
-Adverse Effects

1. Discoloration of teeth
2. Photosensitivity
3. N/V
4. Diarrhea
5. Risk for superinfection is HIGH
6. Pregnancy Category D

16

Tetracycline
-Contraindicated

1. Do not take w/ milk
2. Clients who are pregnant or lactating
-Has effects on linear skeletal growth of fetus and child
3. Children less than 8 years of age
-permanent mottling and discoloration of teeth

17

Aminoglycosides

1. Narrow-spectrum drugs
2. Bacteriocidal
3. Reserved for serious systemic infections caused by:
-AEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
-E. coli, serratia, proteus, kelbsiella, pseudomonas
4. Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis

18

Aminoglycoside
Gentamicin (Garamycin)
-Mechanism of action

Broad Spectrum
Bacteriocidal antibiotic

19

Aminoglycoside
-primary use

Serious urinary, respiratory, nervous, or GI infections

Class of choice for Gram-Negative Bacilli*****

20

Aminoglycoside
-Adverse effects

Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity

21

Aminoglycoside
-Monitor for...

1. Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
2. Hearing loss may occur after therapy has been completed

3. Increase fluid intake, unless otherwise contraindicated to promote excretion
4. Measure PEAK or plasma levels while the patient is on this class

22

Fluoroquinolones

1. Bacteriocidal
2. affect DNA synthesis by inhibiting two bacterial enzymes
3. All have activity against Gram-Negative Pathogens **

23

Fluoroquinolone
-What to monitor?

1. Monitor WBC's
2. Monitor Clients w/ liver and renal dysfunction
3. May cause Photophobia
3. Teach that drugs may cause DIZZINESS and lightheadedness
-Advise against driving or performing hazardous tasks during drug therapy

24

Fluoroquinolone
-Weird Adverse reaction

1. Can cause tendon rupture, especially in children

25

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Prototype fluoroquinolone
1. Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase
2. Affects bacterial replication and DNA repair
3. Used for repiratory infections, bone and joint infections, GI infections, ophthalmic infections, sinusitis, and prostatitis
4. May cause N/V, diarrhea, phototoxicity, headache, dizziness

26

Fluoroquinolone
-Adverse Effects

1. Do not take w/ multivitamins or minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, or zinc ions
-Can decrease absorption by up to 90%

2. Most serious side effects are:
-Dysrhythmias
-Liver failure

27

Sulfonamides

1. Bacteriostatic and act by inhibiting FOLIC ACID
2. Broad spectrum
3. Class of choice to treat UTI
4. Watch for photosensitivity
5. Take w/ a lot of water
6. Watch for decrease renal function

28

Bactrim (sulfonamide)
Mechanism

To kill bacteria by inhibiting bacterial metabolism of folic acid

29

Bactrim (sulfonamide)
-Primary Use

UTI's

30

Bactrim (sulfonamide)
-Adverse Effects

Skin Rashes
N/V
Agranulocytosis or Thrombocytopenia

31

Sulfonamide Therapy
-THings to monitor?

1. Assess for ANEMIA or other hematological disorders
2. Assess renal function;
-sulfonamides may increase risk for crystalluria
3. Can induce skin abnormality called STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME (rare but deadly)

4. Teach clients how to decrease effects of photosensitivity

32

Vancomycin (Vancocin)

Effective for MRSA infections (Very Powerful)

Adverse Effects:
-ototoxicity
-nephrotoxicity
-RED MAN SYNDROME

33

Tuberculosis
-Therapy

1. 2-4 antibiotic administered concurrently
2. Antituberculosis drugs used to prevent disease in high-risk populations including:

-Close contacts and family members of recently infected TB clients
-Clients w/ AIDS
-Clients who are HIV-positive

34

TB therapy
-Contraindications

Contraindicated in:
1. clients with hx of ALCOHOL ABUSE
2. AIDS
3. Liver disease
4. Kidney DIsease

35

Isoniazid
-Food interaction

Avoid foods containing tyramine while on isoniazid

36

TB Drugs

1. Isoniazid (INH)
-Peripheral neuritis and hepatitis
2. RIfampin
-Liver toxicity
-Stains urine, turns Orange-red
3. Ethambutol
-Visual acuity due to optic neuritis

37

TB Drugs
-Summary

Can Cause:
-Liver & Kidney damage
-Nerve & visual damage

38

Antituberculosis Agents
-Assessments

Assess:
1. Kidney or liver disease
-Assess cognitive ability to comply w/ long-term therapy

39

Nursing Diagnoses for TB drugs

Noncompliance, RT therapeutic regimen
Deficient knowledge, RT drug therapy and spread of infection