Lecture 3: Substance Abuse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: Substance Abuse Deck (25):
1

Annual Cost of Substance abuse in US

500 Billion annually

1. alcohol (highest cost)
2. illicit drugs
3. tobacco

2

Addiction

Overwhelming Compulsion / mental / craving / nothing matters

-Repetitive drug-taking behavior
-Serious health and social consequences

3

Substance Dependence

Physical and psychological desire to take a drug

Cannot stop taking drug w/out withdrawals

4

Physical Dependence Ex.

Opioids
alcohol
sedatives
some stimulants
nicotine

5

Psychological Dependence Ex.

Marijuana
Anti-anxiety drugs

6

Tolerance

Body adapts to repeated admin of a drug
-requires higher doses of drug to produce initial effect

Common in substances that affect nervous system

7

Cross-Tolerance

Requires dosage adjustment to obtain therapeutic benefit

Ex.

Anesthetic w/ sedatives

8

Stimulants (Uppers)

Ex. Cocaine / Amphetamines / Methamphetamines
Pts die of cardiac arrest w/ cocaine

-Fight or flight -- Blood flow goes to vital organs
-vasoconstriction in the periphery
-Increased heart rate and respirations
-Increased BP
-dilated pupils
sweating
tremors

9

Downers (relaxers)

Ex. Benzodiazipines / Alcohol / Opioids / Marijuana / Barbiturates

Opioids attach to receptors in the brain stem:

-Heart rate, BP, and respiratory rate are all decreased
-Vasodilation
-unclear mental status
-reddening of the skin

10

Alcohol (CNS Depressant)

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is severe and may be life threatening

benzodiazepines are the preferred drug class for treatment of alcohol withdrawal

help patients with alcoholism with ABSTINENCE

11

Antabuse (disulfiram)

Makes someone toxic almost immediately after consuming alcohol. Stays in system for 2 weeks.

12

Nicotine

Affects nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine system
-Very quickly leads to physical and psychological dependence

13

Marijuana

MOST COMMONLY used illicit drug

-Causes disconnected thoughts, paranoia, euphoria
-Causes RED BLOOD SHOT EYES

14

Withdrawal Definition

Often withdrawal symptoms and signs are the opposite of what the drug originally causes.

15

Opioid withdrawal symptoms

Sympathetic response:

Excessive sweating
Restlessness
goose bumps
Muscle spasms
N/V

16

Barbiturates Withdrawal Symptoms

Insomnia
Anxiety weakness
seizures
delirium

17

Alcohol Withdrawal symptoms

Withdrawal can be life threatening
-Treat alcohol withdrawal w/ benzodiazepines or Librium

18

Stimulant withdrawal Vs. Downer withdrawal

Withdrawing from a downer is much more dangerous than withdrawing from a stimulant

19

With IV-drug users nurse must consider...

HIV infection
Hepatitis
TB

20

CNS Stimulants

-Sense of exhilaration / reduced appetite
-High psychological dependence
-Less severe physical signs
-Increases CNS and Cardiac activity

21

Sedatives Prescribed for Sleep disorders

-Physical dependence, psychological dependence, and tolerance to high doses
-Moderate-to-high psychological dependence
-Moderate-to-EXTREME physical signs of withdrawal

22

Opioids prescribed for severe Pain

-Addiction occurs rapidly
-Intense withdrawal symptoms
-High psychological dependence

Heroin

23

Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms

Irritability, anxiety, and restlessness
INCREASED appetite, headache, insomnia
Decrease in HR and BP

24

Marijuana Withdrawal Symptoms

Irritability and restlessness
Insomnia and tremors
Chills and weight loss

25

Example of RN intervention
-Substance Abuse

Alcohol can cause cross tolerance w/ ANESTHESIA

Nicotine replacement