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Dr. Freschi antibiotics > Antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (50):
1

Primaxin: Gorillamycin
What is it?
MOA?
Coverage?
Doseage?

Risk:

-Imipenem and cilastatin (inhibits dehydropeptidase)

- bind PCN binding proteins inhibiting cell wall synthesis

-Coverage: very broad spectrum of activity, serious systemic infections, for use with very resistant bugs

500mg IV q6h

High risk of seizures

2

Meropenem
What is it?
MOA?
Coverage?
Doseage?

- A carbapenem

-binds PCN binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

-Coverage: strep, pseudomonas, bacteroides

-500mg IV q8: 1g IV q8


3

Invanz
What is it?
MOA?
Coverage?
Doseage?

Ertapenem

-binds PCN binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

-Coverage: MSSA, Strep, Aerobes. Used for moderate-severe foot infections

DOES NOT COVER PSEUDO

Dose: 1g IM/IV qday

4

Gentamicin
What is it?
MOA?
Coverage?
Doseage?

Side effects?

an Aminoglycoside

-Protein synthesis inhibitor, binds irreversibly to 30S

- Covers: serratia

-Dose: 1-1.7mg/kg IM/IV q8

Side effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity

5

Tobramycin
What is it?
MOA?
Coverage?
Doseage?

an aminoglycoside

-Protein synthesis inhibitor, binds irreversibly to 30S

-Covers pseduo aeruginosa

Dose: 1-1.7mg/kg IM/IV q8

Side effects: ototoxicity, and nephrotoxicity

6

Amikacin
What is it?
MOA?
Coverage?
Doseage?

An aminoglycoside

-protein synthesis inhibitor, binds irreversibly to 30S

-reserved for organisms resistant to gentamycin and tobramycin

Dose: 7.5 mg/kg IM/IV q12h

Side effects: ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity

7

Penicillin G
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

-Coverage: anaerobes, Strep, nonpenicillinase staph, nonpenicillinase gonococci

Dose: 1.2-40million units IM or IV qd

8

Penicllin V
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: anaerobes, strep, nonpenicillinase staph, and nonpenicillinase gonococci

Dose: 250-500 mg po qd

9

Ampicillin
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

-coverage: E.coli, P.mirabilis, Shigella , Salmonella, bacteroides, enterococci

Dose: 250-1000mg PO, IM, IV q4-6

COverage

10

Amoxicillin
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: E.coli, P.mirabilis, Shigella, Salmonella, bacteroides, enterococci

Dose: 250-500mg PO TID

11

Dicloxacillin/Cloxacillin
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: DOC for MSSA

Dose: 250-500mg po bid/qid oral

12

Nafcillin
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: DOC for MSSA

Dose 1-2grams IV q4-q6

13

Oxacillin (Bactocill)
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

- Dose: 250-500mg IV/IM q4-6

14

Timentin
-Makeup
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

What to look out for?

Ticarcillin/clavulonic acid

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: covers pseudo

Dose: 3.1gm IV q4-6

Watch for increased NA levels

15

Zosyn
-Makeup
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

Piperacillin/tazobactam

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: covers pseudo

Dose: 3.375-4.5 grams IV q8

16

Unasyn
-Makeup
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

ampicillin/sulbactam

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Indicated for polymicrobial diabetic foot infections

Dose: 1/5-3.0 grams IV q6

DOC MSSA

17

Augmentin
-Makeup
-MOA
-Coverage
-Doseage

amoxicillin/clavulonic acid

MOA: acts on penicillin binding protein to inhibit cell wall synthesis

COverage: gram+ and bacteroides

Dose: 875 gm oral BID

18

Which Penicillins are hepatically cleared (4)

Mezlocillin, Azlocillin, Nafcillin, Piperacillin

19

First generation Cephalosporins (3)

Cephalexin, Cefadroxil, Cefazolin

20

Cephalexin
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Keflex

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Covers: more Gram +
DOC for staph

Dose: 250mg-500mg PO BID

21

Cefadroxil
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Duricef

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: more Gram +
DOC for staph

Dose: 30mg/kg/day PO BID

22

Cefazolin
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Ancef

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: more Gram +
DOC for staph

Dose 2 grams IV prior to surgery

23

Second generation cephalosporins (2)

Cefaclor, and Cefuroxime

24

Cefaclor
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Ceclor

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: similar Gram + as 1st generation.
More upper resp coverage

Dose:250-500mg PO q8

25

Cefuroxime
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Ceftin

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: simmilar Gram + as 1st generation.
More upper resp coverage

Dose: 250-500mg PO BID

26

Third generation Cephalosporins (3)

Ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefdinir

27

Ceftriaxone
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Rocephin

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: less gram + than previous gen. But now more gram negative.

Empiric/ DOC for neisseria-septic joint

Dose: 1-2grams IV q day

28

Ceftazidime
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Fortaz

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis.

Coverage: less gram + than previous generations but now more gram -. COVERS PSEUDO

Dose: 1gram IV/IM BID

29

Cefdinir
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Omnicef

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: less gram + than previous generations but now more gram -.
USED BY internal med

Dose: 300mg PO BID

30

Fourth gen Cephalosporin

Cefepime

31

Cefepime
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Maxipime

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: Similar Gram + to 1st gen and Gram - similar to 3rd gen. INCLUDING PSEUDO
Similar coverage to zosyn

Dose: 2g IV BID

32

Fifth generation Cephalosporin (1)

Ceftaroline

33

Ceftaroline
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

Teflaro

MOA: acts on penicillin binding proteins to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Coverage: broad spectrum similar to fourth gen and active against MRSA.

Dose: 600 mg IV BID

34

Ciprofloxacin
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

What to be weary of

Cipro

MOA: inhibit bacterial DNA topoisomerase (gyrase)

Coverage: Gram-.
DOC-pseudo

Dose:250-750mg PO BID
OR 200-400mg IV BID

Be careful: active people, open growth plates, supplements will decrease absorption

35

Levofloxacin
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

What to be weary of

Levaquin

MOA: inhibit bacterial DNA topoisomerase (gyrase)

Coverage: empiric antibiotic, mainly Gram-

Dose: 250-500mg PO/IV

Be careful: active people, open growth plates, supplements will decrease absorption.

36

Moxifloxacin
Brand name
MOA
Coverage
Doseage

What to be weary of

Avelox

MOA: inhibit bacterial DNA topoisomerase (gyrase)

Coverage: empiric oral antibiotics. Covers everything but those that are resistant. Better anaerobic coverage in diabetic foot infections.

Dose: 400mg qd PO

Be careful: active people, open growth plates, supplements will decrease absorption.

37

Macrolides (3)

Azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin

38

Erythromycin

MOA

Coverage:

Doseage:

Metabolism:

MOA: inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 50 S subunit

Coverage: S.pyogenes, S.pneuomonia, S. aureus.
Chlamydia, gonorrhoeae, syphilis.

Campylobacter

Dose: 250-500mg PO BID
Max: 4g daily

Metabolized by the liver

39

Azithromycin

MOA

Coverage

Doseage

MOA: inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 50s subunit.

Coverage:
- S.aureus
-S.pyogenes
-Strep agalactiae

Dose:
-500mg PO day 1
-250mg qday 2-5

40

Clarithromycin

Brand name

MOA

Coverage

Doseage

Biaxin

MOA: inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50s subunit.

Coverage:
-Staph aureus
-S.pyogenes
-Mycoplasma, chlamydia, mycobacteria

Dose: 250mg PO BID

41

Tetracyclines

MOA

Coverage

Contraindications

MOA: act on 30 S subunit of bacterial ribosome inhibiting translation

Coverage: broad spectrum
active against community MRSA

Contraindicated in pregnancy

42

Clindamycin

Brand name

MOA:

Coverage:

Doseage

Metabolism

Cleocin

MOA: inhibits protein synthesis through 50s ribosome subunit

Coverage: most gram positives and anaerobes.
-including bacteroides fragilis

Dose:
--foot infections: 300-450mg tid PO

--osteo due to MRSA: 600mg tid po

Metabolized by liver

43

Metronidazole

Brand name

MOA

Coverage

Doseage

flagyl

MOA: binds to DNA and disrupts its structure

Coverage: anaerobes (gram+ and gram-)

Dose: 500mg TID PO

44

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

Brand name:

MOA:

Spectrum of activity:

Dosing:

Caution?

Bactrim

MOA: inhibit bacterial synthesis of THF

Spectrum of activity: aerobic G+ and G-
-DOC for community acquired MRSA

Dosing:
-TMP/SMX: 80mg/400mg or 160mg/ 800mg

Caution for people with folate deficiency

45

Daptomycin

Brand name :

MOA:

Spectrum of activity:

Dosing

Cubicin

MOA: depolarizes bacterial membranes, inhibits protein, DNA and RNA synthesis

Spectrum of activity: MSSA, MRSA and VRE.
DOC for MRSA infection when vanco is not allowed

Dosing:
Skin infections: 4mg/kg IV qday

46

Tigecycline

Brand name:

MOA:

Spectrum of activity:

Dosing:

Side effects

Tygacil

MOA: binds 30s inhibiting protein synthesis

Spectrum: very broad.
-MRSA,MRSE, PRSP, and VRE
-multi-drug resistant organisms

Dose: start at 100mg IV and 50mg IV q12h

Side effects: high seizure rates

47

Vancomycin

Brand name:

MOA:

Spectrum:

Dosing:

Peaks and troughs

Vancocin

MOA: binds to the building blocks (NAG and NAM) of peptidoglycan to inhibit cell wall synthesis

Spectrum:
-DOC: for MRSA
Also covers enterococcus and Strep

Dosing:
-Oral:125mg and 250mg

-IV: 1g q12 hours (slow infusion over 1 hour)

Must measure peaks and troughs with administration. (10-20mL is normal)

Red man syndrome is treated with diphenhydramine

48

Rifampin

Brand name:

MOA:

Spectrum

Dosing:

Common Side effects

Rifampicin

MOA: inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase leading to suppression of RNA synthesis and cell death

Spectrum:
-TB
-Endocarditis
-Hansen Disease
-Anthrex

Dosing: 300mg-600mg PO/IV

Side effects: reddening of the mucosa. As well as urine, sweat, saliva or tears

49

Linezolid

Brand name

MOA

Spectrum of activity

Dosing:

Zyvox

MOA: binds at the P site at the ribosomal 50S subunit

Spectrum:
-VREF
-Hospital acquired pneumonia
-endocarditis
-anthrax

Dosin: 600mg PO/IV q12 hours

50

Synercid

Brand name

MOA:

Spectrum of activity

Dosing

Black box:

Quinupristin/dalfopristin

MOA: synergistic

Dalfopristin: binds to the 23 S portion of the 50S ribosomal subunit to change the conformation of it. This will enhance the binding of quinupristin by 100.

Quinupristin: binds to nearby site on 50S ribosomal subunit to prevent elongation of peptide

Spectrum:
-MRSA
-VRA/VRE

Dosing: 7.5mg/kg q8h

Black box for being advanced so quickly through FDA approval.