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Flashcards in Bugs Deck (10):
1

Acinetobacter baumannii

Gram Stain:
Oxygen:
Associated with?
Pathogenic potential (5)
Conditions it causes?

Gram negative bacillus

Aerobic

Opportunistic bacterial pathogen associated with hospital acquired infections

Largely associated with infected combat troops

Pathogenic potential: -ability to adhere to surfaces
-forms capsule
-forms biofilm -antimicrobial resistance
-can acquire genetic material from unrelated genera

Conditions:
Wound and surgical site infections including nec fasc

2

Eikenella corrodens
Gram:
Oxygen:
Natural environment?
Diseases it causes?

Gram negative bacillus

facultative anaerobe

found in normal human oral flora as a mixed infection with strep.

also found in insulin dependent diabetics and intravenous drug users

Can cause cellulitis and osteomyelitis.

Antibiotics of any kind can eliminate co-infected organisms and create a pure eikenella infection

3

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Gram:
Oxygen:
Color/Smell:
Pathogenic potential (4):
Diseases (6)

Gram negative rod

aerobic

green pigment and fruity grape smell

Pathogenic potential:
-polysacchoride capsule
-adhesins:
---pili
---flagella
---LPS
---alginate

-Secreted toxins:
---phospholipase C: hemolysis
---Exotoxin A-AB: inhibits EF-2

-Antibiotic resistance

Diseases it causes:
-nosocomial infections
-opportunistic infections
-Skin and soft tissue:
----burns
----folliculitis
----osteochondritis
----osteomyelitis
----Web space intertrigo

-pneumonia
-swimmer's ear
-sepsis

4

Pasteurella multocida

Gram stain:
Oxygen:
Virulence factors:
Cause:
Diseases:

Gram negative coccobacillus

facultative anaerobe

Virulence: LPS, hyaluronic acid

Causes: doc and cat bits, scratches or wound licking

Diseases: pneumonia in COPD and Sepsis in immunocompromised

5

Enterococcus Faecalis
Other name:
Gram stain:
Acquisition?
Resistance?
Diseases it causes?

Treatment:

AKA Group D strep

-Gram positive cocci

-Hospital acquired infections

-Can become resistant to vanco

Causes UTI's, Bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tree infections

Ampicillin, amoxicillin or vanco

6

Peptostreptococcus

Gram Stain

Found?

Oxygen

What type of infections

Treatment

Gram positive cocci

Found in normal flora of human mouth, intestinal tract, vagina and skin

Anaerobic

Prefers soft tissue with low oxygen tension and poor vascular supply

Tx: empirically/penicillin

7

Clostridium tetani

Gram stain:

Populations at risk

Types of tetanus (4)

Treatment

Gram positive

obligate anaerobe

Populations at risk
-unvaccinated
-rusty nails and soil
-diabetics with ulcers
-illicit drug users

Types of tetanus
-Generalized: trismus and opisthotonus

-Local/tonic spastic extremity

-cephalic

-neonatal

DOC: penicillin G or metronidazole

8

Clostridium perfringens

Gram stain

Toxins produced

Diseases it causes

Most susceptible

Symptoms

Tx

Gram positive

obligate anaerobes

produce alpha toxin or lecithinase (RBC hemolysis)

Causes traumatic gas gangrene

Susceptible:
-military combat wounds
-motorcycle accidents
-soil

Symptoms: watery diarrhea

Tx: IV penicillin

9

Corynebacterium Minutissimum

Gram stain

Where is it found

What does it cause (3)

Treatment

Gram positive bacillus

Found on normal skin flora

Causes
-erythrasma: macerated scaly plaque between toes

-Trichomycosis axillaris

-pitted ketolysis

Tx: topical clindamycin/erythromycin, fusidic acid, imidazole

10

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Gram stain

What diseases does it cause:

Treatment

Gram negative diplococci

Causes:
-STI
-White purulent discharge
-Polyarthritis and affects knees/ankles asymmetrically

Treat: ceftriaxone