Antihelminthic Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antihelminthic Drugs Deck (62):
1

What is Taenia saginata?

Beef Tapeworm

2

What are the flatworms?

T. saginata, T. solium, Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma hematobium, S. mansoni, S. japonicum

3

What is T. solium?

Pork Tapeworm

4

What is Diphyllobothrium latum?

Fish Tapeworm

5

How do you get T. saginata?

Eating undercooked meat

6

How do you get T. solium?

Eating undercooked pork

7

How do you get D. latum?

Eating undercooked fish

8

What is the largest tapeworm?

Diphyllobothrium latum

9

What is the main nutrient that D. latum robs from the host?

B12

10

What is the lifecycle of T. solium and saginata?

1. Animals become infected by eating eggs or proglottids 2. Oncospheres hatch and penetrate intestinal walls and circulate to the muscles 3. Oncospheres develop into cysticerci in muscle 4. Cysticerci eaten by humans 5. Cysticerci grow into worms

11

What causes cysticercosis?

Autoinfection by T. solium. Same lifecycle as normal, but simply in the human. Cysticerci develop in brain, liver, and other tissues

12

What is a high risk of T. solium infection?

Neurocysticercosis

13

What is Hymenolepis nana?

Dwarf Tapeworm

14

What is the most common Tapeworm infection?

Hymenolepis nana

15

How is one infected by H. nana?

Ingesting eggs. Humans can transmit to humans. Children predominatly infected

16

What are Cestodes?

Tapeworms

17

What are Trematodes?

Flukes or Schistosomes

18

What does Praziquantel treat?

Cestode and Trematode infestations

19

How does Praziquantel work?

It disrupts Ca2+ homeostasis, causing muscular contraction followed by spastic paralysis. Worms dislodge and die

20

What is the drug of choice for all forms of schistosomiasis?

Praziquantel

21

What does Praziquantel not kill?

Eggs of T. solium

22

What is one of the major risks of taking Praziquantel?

Severe rxn to dying worms

23

What are the Nematodes?

Necator americanus, Ancylostoma doudenale, Enterobiasis, Ascariasis, Trichuriasis, Trichinella spiralis, Filariasis, Loa loa, Anchocerca volvulus

24

What are the hookworms?

Necator americanus and Ancylostoma doudenale

25

How do hookworms infect their host?

Through the skin or oral ingestion

26

What is the most common worm infection in the US?

Enterobiasis

27

What is the infection cycle for Enterobiasis?

1. Female lays eggs on anus at night, 2. Eggs grabbed by fingers, 3. Eggs ingested

28

What is the most common worm infection in the world?

Ascaris

29

Where do ascaris reside?

Small Intestine

30

What is the Ascaris lifecycle?

1. Ingested Eggs, 2. Larva hatch in SI, 3. Penetrate intestinal wall transported to lungs, 4. ~10d worms pass through lungs to trachea and are re-swallowed, 5. Return to SI

31

What infection is common in tourists who vist the subtropics and the S.E. US?

Trichuriasis

32

Where do Trichuris live?

Large Intestine

33

What are some of the symptoms of Trichuriasis?

Irritation, Inflammation of colonic mucosa, abdominal pain, diarrhea, distention

34

How do you get Trichuriasis?

Ingesting eggs in contaminated food/liquids

35

Where do filaria live?

Lymphatics

36

What organisms cause Filariasis?

Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, Loa Loa, Onchocerca volvulus

37

How are filaria transmitted?

Mosquitoes

38

What do filaria cause?

Elephantiasis

39

How is Loa loa transmitted?

Deer Flies

40

How is Onchocerca volvulus transmitted?

Female Blackflies

41

What is the worst outcome of Loa loa infection?

Ocular lesions can lead to blindness

42

What does Onchocerca volvulus cause?

River blindness

43

What are the Benzimidazoles?

Mebendazole, Thiabendazole, Albendazole

44

What is the MOA of the Benzimidazoles?

Bind to tubulin. Microtubules grow from the (+) end and benzimidazoles cap the microtubules, The microtubules then shorten on the (-) end

45

How can you increase the absorption of benzimidazoles?

Eating a fatty meal

46

How do you specify P.O requirements when treating luminal parasites w/ benzimidazoles?

Take on empty stomach

47

How do you specify P.O. requirement when taking benzimidazoles for tissue infections?

Take w/ a fatty meal

48

Which benzimidazole forms an active metabolite on hepatic metabolism?

Albendazole is converted to an active sulfoxide form

49

Which benzimidazole is more toxic?

Thiabendazole; this makes it no longer preferred

50

What is the drug of choice for cysticercosis?

Albendazole

51

What is the drug of choice for pinworms, hookworms, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and strongyloidiasis?

Albendazole

52

What is treated w/ Mebendazole?

Pinworms, hookworms, ascariasis, and trichuriasis

53

What is Diethylcarbamazine used to treat?

Filariasis and loiasis

54

What is the Mazzotti rxn?

Severe immune response to dying worms

55

What does Ivermectin treat?

Strongyloidiasis and Onchocerciasis

56

What is the MOA for Ivermectin?

1. Paralyzes microfilariae, 2. Intensifies GABA-mediated transmission of signals in peripheral nerves, 3. Allows host cytotoxic cells to adhere

57

Does Ivermectin kill adult worms?

No, it only blocks progeny release

58

Why are many herding breeds sensitive to Ivermectin?

They lack the P-glycoprotein transporter (MDR1 gene) in the brain

59

What is a broad spectrum antihelminth?

Pyrantel pamoate

60

What can Pyrantel pamoate not treat?

migratory stages or ova of helminths

61

What is the MOA of Pyrantel Pamoate?

Neuromuscular blocking agent; Causes release of ACh and inhibits cholinesterase. This paralyzes worms

62

How can Doxy be used to treat onchocerciasis?

It kills the bacterial symbiant Wolbachia which is required for the adult onchocerca worm to live