Antihypertensives Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antihypertensives Deck (24):
1

List of alpha 1 blockers

"zosin"
prazosin
doxazosin
terazosin

2

List of non selective beta blockers

propranolol
carvedilol
pindolol
timolol

3

List of 3rd generation beta blockers (selective)

metoprolol
atenolol
bisprolol
nebivolol

4

List of ACE inhibitors

"pril"
captopril
lisinopril
enalapril
ramipril

5

List of AR blockers

"sartan"
losartan
valsartan
irbesartan
telmisartan
candesartan

6

List of renin inhibitors

aliskerin

7

List of alpha 2 agonists

clonidine
guanabens
guanfacine
methyldopa

8

List of direct vasodilators

minoxidil
sodium nitroprusside
diazxide
fenoldopam

9

List of L-type calcium channel blockers: phenylalkylamine

verapamil

10

List of L-type calcium channel blockers: benzothiazepine

diltiazem

11

L-type calcium channel blockers: dihydropyridines

"dipine"
amoldipine
nifedipine
nicardipine
nimodipine

12

alpha1 adrenergic receptor blockers

use: BPH; not for HTN monotherapy
effects: decrease TPR and BP, relax bladder and prostate muscles; increase HDL and lower LDL, beneficial effect on insulin resistance
SE: first dose hypotension with prazosin

13

Beta blockers with no ISA

effects: decrease HR and contractility and therefore CO, inhibit renin release
use: HTN, additive to diuretics, mortality benefits with bisprolol

14

labetalol

mixed alpha1 and nonselective B antagonist
use: IV for HTN emergencies (preeclampsia and pheochromocytoma

15

carvedilol

mixed alpha 1 and nonselective B antagonist
antioxidant: protects membranes from lipid preoccupation, prevents LDL oxidation and decreased LDL uptake in coronary vessels

16

nebivolol

B1 selective antagonist with NO-mediated vasodilation
antixoidant

17

Use of 3rd generation B blockers

reduce BP , HR more than other B blockers
NOT first line for HTN
use: CHF (reduce mortality and morbidity)
not associated with changes in lipids and glucose, preferred in metabolic syndrome

18

bisprolol

B1 blocker

19

Additional uses of B blockers

CHF, MI, sinus/AV arrhythmias
off label: stage fright, altering memory

20

timolol

B blocker for open angle glaucoma (reduce production of aqueous humor)
preferred in HTN patents with: MI, ischemic heart disease, CHF, hyperthyroidism and migraines

21

Side effects of B blockers

cold extremities, bradycardia, bronchospasm, CNS side effects (depression and dreams)
block glycogenolysis and delay recovery from hypoglycemia in T1DM (not seen with 3rd generation or selective B blockers)
increase LDL and reduce HDL, increase TG
WITHDRAWAL syndrome: taper to avoid tachycardia

22

ACE inhibitors

inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme: inhibits conversion o angiotensin I to angiotensin II
reduces secretion of aldosterone, increase renal blood flow without increase in GFR
dilate arteries and veins, reduce BP, reduce thickening of vessels
*no postural hypotension (baroreceptors intact)

23

captopril

increase syn. of renal PGs (delays progression of renal dissuasion diabetics)

24

Effects of angiotensin II

1. cardiac and vascular hypertropy
2. systemic vasoconstriction
3. thirst: increased blood volume
4. pituitary: increase ADH
5. adrenal cortex: increase aldosterone
6. renal sodium and fluid retention