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Flashcards in EKG pictures Deck (18):

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Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)


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Sinus Bradycardia


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Sinus Tachycardia

100-150 bpm


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Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)

ominous rhythm with 170-230 bpm

at rest can be 150 bpm


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Atrial fibrillation

Chaotic rhythm with intermitten normal QRS waves
Typically has no recognizable P waves; instead has random looking “fibrillatory waves” between the QRS complexes
Atrial contraction is lost here
Most common cause of stroke due to increased chance of thrombus formation


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Atrial flutter

Due to establishment of a reentry circuit within atria (flutter rate of around 250-300 bpm)
Characteristic  “sawtooth baseline” on the EKG
Typically normal QRS complexes either at every 2nd or 4th impulse


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Normal sinus rhythm (NSR) with premature ventricular complexes (w/PVCs)

May be caused by increased ventricular automaticity or re-entry
Typically a string of normal QRS complexes with a random extra abnormal one thrown in
Can be benign; but does indicate ventricular irregularity


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Ventricular tachycardia (V-Tach)

Very fast, almost uninterrupted abnormal QRS complexes (>200 bpm)
Can transition into ventricular fibrillation
Myocardial ischemia, cardiac drug toxicity, and electrolyte imbalances are common causes


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Ventricular fibrillation

Muted random unrecognizable waves (0 bmp) with no cardiac output
Primary rescue = AED shock
Secondary prevention = ICD


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1st degree HB


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2nd degree heart block (Mobitz Type I or Wenchebach)

A cyclical, progressive conduction delay causing slight increases in PR interval until a beat is dropped (indicated by intermittent, regular flatlines)
Results from increased vagal tone, myocardial ischemia, or some drugs (Ca++ blockers, digitalis, or B-blockers potientially)


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2nd degree heart block (Mobitz Type II)

Sporadic “dropping” of the beat without progression
May cause low cardiac output or progress to 3rd degree heart block
An implanted pacemaker can be used for effective treatment


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3rd degree (complete) heart block

Ominous rhythm with very low heart rate (around 30 bpm)
Caused by independent beating of atria and ventricles; P/QRS waves are present, but are not related to eachother at all here
Can progress to ventricular stand still
Can be caused by lyme disease in some cases
An implanted pacemaker can be used for effective treatment
Some characteristic EKG findings: P- waves without QRS (“lonely P-wave”)
Non-regular P-R intervals
Prolonged QRS


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What AP correlate with each color?

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yellow: SA node 

pink: atria

dark blue: AV node

light blue: purkinje fibers

red: ventricle


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Torsades de Pointe

Rhythm: Irregular

Rate: Fast (200-250 bpm)

P wave: Absent

PR Interval: Not measurable

QRS: Wide, bizarre looking 


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Brugada syndrome

elevated ST segment descending with an upward convexity to an inverted T wave


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arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

epsilon wave: notch in terminal part of QRS