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Flashcards in ANTIMICROBIALS Deck (230)
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1

What kind of drugs are nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz?

NNRTI's

2

What are the 2 neuraminidase inhibitors?

Zanamavir and Oseltamivir

3

What drug can be used to treat HBV, HCV, and Kaposi's?

IFN alpha

4

What CMV drug must be coadministered with probenecid?

Cidofovir due to nephrotoxicity

5

What is the AE of zidovudine?

anemia (NRTI)

6

This drug inhibits renal dehydropeptidase I to prevent breakdown of imipenem

cilastatin

7

How do you prophylax against endocarditis from surgery and dental procedures?

Penicillins

8

Which antibiotic inhibits dihydrofolate reductase? Which drug also does this as an antineoplastic?

Trimethoprim; Methotrexate

9

What is the major AE of chloroquine?

Retinopathy

10

Which generation of cephalosporins covers gram positive bacteria and Proteus, E. coli, and Klebsiella?

First Generation (PEcK)

11

Which enzyme activates isoniazid to the active form?

Mycobacterial Catalase Peroxidase (KatG)

12

How do you prophylax against strep pharyngitis in a kid with Hx of rheumatic fever?

oral penicillin

13

What is the MOA of griseofulvin?

Interferes with fungal microtubules and disrupts mitosis

14

Which drugs block the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol?

azoles

15

What are the 3 anti-staphylococcal penicillins?

Nafcillin, Oxacillin, and Dicloxacillin

16

MOA of oseltamivir

neuraminidase inhibitor that decreases release of influenza A and B viral progeny

17

What bugs are covered by second generation cephalosporins?

Gram positives, Haemophilus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella (HEN PEcK)

18

What drug inhibits HIV integrase

Raltegravir

19

What is the advantage of a cephalosporin over a penicillin regarding beta-lactamase?

Cephalosporins are overall less sensitive to beta lactamase

20

Which 2 antifungals affect membrane function?

Amphotericin B, Nystatin

21

Which type of anemia is formed by trimethoprim? What could you give to rescue?

Megaloblastic anemia (lack of folate); rescue with folinic acid (leucovorin) same as for methotrexate

22

Why are tetracyclines so effective against Chlamydia and Rickettsia?

They can accumulate intracellularly

23

Describe the full MOA of acyclovir

Gets into cells and is monophosporylated by viral thymidine kinase to the active form. This then functions as a guanosine analog and causes CHAIN TERMINATION (no 3' OH)

24

In which setting would you choose aztreonam over aminoglycosides? Can you give both?

In renal failure because aminoglycosides are nephrotoxic. However, the two are synergistic so can be given together under other circumstances.

25

What is famciclovir used for?

VZV; this drug is related to acylclovir

26

How do you treat tuberculous leprosy?

Dapsone and Rifampin

27

MOA of ergosterol

Binds ergosterol to form membrane pores in fungi

28

What other disorders can hydroxychloroquine be used for aside from malaria?

Rheumatologic disorders

29

What highly virulent bug is covered by ceftaroline?

MRSA

30

Which beta-lactams may cause vitamin K deficiency? How would this manifest?

Cephalosporins, bleeding (loss of II, VII, IX, X, and proteins C and S)