Antimicrobials: Mechanism of Action Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology DW Test 2 > Antimicrobials: Mechanism of Action > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antimicrobials: Mechanism of Action Deck (34)
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1

Class: Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors

Inhibit cell wall formation via altering: 1. Transpeptidase 2. With or without B-Lactam structure 3. D-ala D-ala 4. membrane potential

2

Class: Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

Inhibit protein binding via altering: 1. 30S 2. 50S 3. tRNA Isoleucine transport 4. Formation of 70S

3

Class: Folic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors

Inhibit folic acid synthesis via altering: 1. Dihydropterate reductase 2. Difydrofolate reductase

4

Class: DNA/RNA Synthesis Inhibitors

Inhibit DNA/RNA synthesis by altering: 1. gyrase 2. topoisomerase 3. depolarizing-->toxic effect 4. ferrodoxin metabolism-->toxic effect 5. electron transfer 6. mutagenesis

5

Class: Antimycobacterials

Inhibit mycobacterium growth via: 1. Mycolic acid synthesis 2. RNA polymerase 3. pH altering 4. RNA synthesis

6

Penicillin Class Action

B-Lactam binds transpeptidase

7

Penicillinase-resistant penicillins: Dicloxicillin, Methicillin, Oxacillin, Nafcillin

Side groups protect these B-Lactams from B-lactamase

8

Irreversible B-lactamase inhibitors

Combined with penicillins to broaden spectrum of treatment

9

Cephalosporins

B-lactam that is stable at low pH

10

Carbapenams

Penicillin effect without B-lactam structure

11

Televancin and Vancomycin

Block polymerization by binding D-Ala D-Ala

12

Aminoglycosides: Amikacin, Gentamycin, Kanamycin, Netilmicin, Streptomycin, Tobramycin, Neomycin

30S binding interferes with initiation misreading dissociation

13

Tetracyclines: Tetracycline, Minocycline, Doxycycline, Demeclocycline, Oxytetracycline, Tigecycline

30 binding prevents aa from polymerizing

14

Chloramphenicol

50S binding interfers with peptidyl transferase

15

Lincosamides: Clindamycin

50S binding prevents translocation from A site to P site

16

Macrolides: Erythromycin base/estolate/sterate/ethylsuccinate, Clatrithromycin, Azithromycin

50S binding prevents translocation from A site to P site

17

Ketolides: Telithromycin

50S binding to two sites decreases resistance

18

Retapamulin

50S binding incactivates peptidyl transferase and blocks the P site

19

Mupirocin

Inhibits tRNA transport of Isoleucine

20

Linezolid

50S binding prevents 70S subunit aggregation

21

Streptogramins: Combination of Quinupristan Dalfopristin

Dalfo: Early protein synthesis Quinu: Late protein synthesis

22

Sulfonamides: Sulfadiazine, silver sulfadiazine, sulfisoxoasole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfacetamide, sulfasalazine

Compete with PABA for dyhydropteroate synthase (first step in folic acid production)

23

Trimethoprim

Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (last step in folic acid production)

24

Fluoroquinolones: "-floxacin"

DNA gyrase topoisomerase IV

25

Lipopeptides: Daptomycin

Rapid depolarization via binding membranes causes halt to DNA RNA synthesis

26

Metronidazole

Anaerobic bacteria absorb Reduction with ferrodoxin Toxic metabolites halt DNA synthesis

27

Nitozoxanide

Inhibit electron transfer via pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase enzyme to stop DNA synthesis

28

Tinidazole

Damages DNA

29

Rifaximin

Binds DNA dependent RNA polymerase

30

Isoniazid

Mycolic acid synthesis halted in mycobacterium

31

Rifampin

RNA polymerase of mycobacteria

32

Pyrazinamide

Lowers pH in tubercle cavity of mycobacterium

33

Ethambutol

Inhibit RNA synthesis in mycobacterium

34

Clofazimine

Binds DNA and inhibits RNA polymerase function in mycobacterium