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Flashcards in Antiquity / Medieval Deck (62):
1

What are the oldest surviving instruments?

Bone Flutes from the Stone Age (40,000 BCE)

2

What are the first civilizations?

Mesopotamia

3

Who developed the first known forms of writing?

Sumerians

4

Who wrote earliest form of musical notation?

Babylonians in 1400-1250 BCE

5

The aulos (two-piped reed instrument) was used to worship who?

Dionysis, god of fertility and wine

6

The lyre (seven strings strummed with a plectrum) was associated with which god?

Apollo, god of light, prophecy, learning, and the arts

7

What is melos?

Monophonic single line, where music is as performing art

8

What is harmonia?

Unification of parts as orderly whole

9

Who discovered intervals as ratios (Octave as 2:1, 5th as 3:2, 4th as 4:3)?

Pythagoras

10

Who was a leading astronomer of antiquity and writer on music?

Ptolemy

11

What is ethos?

Music can affect your etho, or ethical character

12

Who believed that music affected behavior?

Aristotle

13

Which two harmoniai did Plato endorse?

Dorian and Phrygian -- fostered temperance and courage

14

What is the greater perfect system?

Four tetrachords plus added lowest note to make 2-octave span

15

Who is credited with creating Gregorian Chants?

Pope Gregory I

16

When was the earliest notation used?

850

17

What did the earliest notation use?

Neumes -- placed above words to indicate melodic gesture

18

Who is credited for creating the first staff?

Guido of Arezzo

19

Who wrote Die institutione musica (The Fundamentals of Music)?

Boethius

20

Who introduced solmization?

Guido of Arezzo

21

What do the syllables in solfege correspond to?

Notes in the first six phrases of the hymn Ut quent laxis

22

What is liturgy?

A form in which public worship is to be conducted

23

What are examples of chants at Christmas Mass?

Introit announces birth
Gradual is revelation of salvation
Alleluia hails sanctified day
Offertory acknowledges God's dominion
Communion

24

What are styles of setting texts in chant?

Syllabic - every syllable has a note
Neumatic - one to six notes per syllable
Melismatic - long melodic passages on a single syllable

25

Who was the best-known composer of sacred monophony?

Hildegard of Bingen, who wrote Ordo virtutum

26

Who promoted learning and artistic achievement and was the first emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire?

Charlemagne

27

What are examples of Latin song?

Versus
Conductus
Goliard songs

28

What is the chanson de geste?

Song of Deeds

29

What are examples of professional musicians in Charlemagne's time?

Bards: Celtic poet-singers
Jongleurs: lower-class itinerant traveling musicians
Minstrel: specialized musicians employed by nobles

30

What did 12th-century guilds provide?

Legal protections, right to perform, rules for conduct

31

Who were troubadours (female - trobairitz)?

12th-century French poet-composers in southern France
In Northern France, they were trouveres.

32

What are vidas?

Lives recounted in fanciful biographies

33

Who was Bernart de Ventadorn?

Most influential troubadour

34

What are chansonniers?

Manuscript anthologies

35

What is contrafactum?

New words to existing melodies

36

True or false: Most of Troubadour songs are strophic (same music for each verse).

True

37

What are different types of Troubadour song?

Alba (dawn song)
Canso (love song)
Tenso (debate song)

38

Which is the only trobairitz song to survive with music?

A chantar by Comtessa de Dia

39

What is Jeu de Robin et de Marion (The Play of Robin and Marion)?

Most famous musical play, by Adam de la Halle

40

What happened in the 1208 Albigensian Crusade?

Aristocratic support for troubadours and trouveres collapsed.

41

What are minnesinger and minnelieder?

Minnesinger are German knightly poet-musicians who wrote Minnelieder (love songs)

42

What are laude?

Sacred Italian monophonic songs

43

What are cantigas?

Medieval monophonic song, includes Cantigas de Santa Maria to honor the Virgin Mary

44

In 1050-1300, the Church prospered and written polyphony inaugurated which four concepts in Western music?

Counterpoint
Harmony
Centrality of notation
Composition as distinct from performance

45

What is a drone?

From antiquity -- melody against sustained pitch (modal final)

46

What is the first form of polyphony?

Organum, in 9th century. Had parallel organum and mixed parallel and oblique organum.

47

What is discant style vs. florid organum?

Discant style - both notes move at similar rates
Florid organum - voices move at different rates

48

What is the first notation since ancient Greece to indicate duration?

Notre Dame Polyphony

49

What is a clausula?

Self-contained section of an organum

50

What is Perotinus organum?

3- and 4-voice organa

51

What is a motet?

Sacred, polyphonic short vocal pieces

52

What is cantus firmus?

Existing melody, usually plainchant, on which new polyphonic work is based

53

What is significant about Franconian notation?

Note shapes signified relative duration

54

Which polyphony uses imperfect consonances in parallel motion?

English Polyphony

55

What is rondellus?

Elaborate form of voice exchange

56

What is rota?

Perpetual canon or round at the unison

57

What is Ars Nova?

French, introduced by Philippe de Vitry, begins duple or imperfect division of note values. Modern notation is direct descendant.

58

Who opposed Ars Nova?

Jacques de Liege in Speculum musicae (The Mirror of Music)

59

Ars Nova also involved isorhythm. What is isorhythm, talea, and color?

Isorhythm is where (at least) one voice keeps the same rhythm (talea) throughout the piece. Color is a recurring segment of the melody.

60

Who is the leading composer of French Ars Nova?

Guillaume de Machaut

61

Some facts about Italian Trecento music?

Italian notation convenient for florid lines.
Secular polyphonic songs were largest surviving body of music.
Included madrigals (unaccompanied secular polyphonic vocal) and caccia (means "hunt").

62

Who was most famous musician/composer of Italian Trecento?

Francesco Landini