Antiviral therapy Flashcards Preview

Pharm Exam 4 SP2018 > Antiviral therapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antiviral therapy Deck (30):
1

examples of DNA viruses

herpes
CMV
chicken pox (varicella, VZV)
Hep B

2

examples of RNA retroviruses

HIV1 and HIV2 --> AIDS

3

examples of RNA viruses

Influenza A, B, and C
Hep C
RSV

4

modes of transmission

human to human
animal to human
food to human
equipment to human

5

viruses are not cells, they are

obligate intracellular parasites

6

CMV is a herpesviruses and 50-80% are infected by age 40 but don't know because it only affects....

immunocompromised patients

or unborn babies infected during pregnancy

7

infection process steps

adsorption
penetration/uncoating
replication/transcription/translation
assembly
release of new virus
secondary infection of other cells

8

what do retroviruses have that humans don't that makes it a good target to attack

reverse transcriptase (RNA -->DNA)

9

what are the 2 effects of interferons?

activates killer cells (Natural and CD8+ T cells)
induces resistance of other host cells to virus

10

... immunization is accomplished by injecting antiviral immunoglobulins

passive

11

... immunization is accomplished by vaccination with antiviral vaccines (administering antigen to induce cellular and humoral immunity) but it takes time to develop

active

12

in the innate immune system, ..... cells express ... receptors the secrete.... following viral stimulation

specialized intereferon producing cells

Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 and TLR 9

interferon 1

13

intereferon circulates and activates interferon receptors on other cells and this induces expression of many genes that promote .... to many viruses

resistance

14

which interferon is currently used as a therapeutic

interferon alpha

15

the goal of chemotherapy is to have

selective toxicity to the virus

16

lqtent infection and reactivation of herpesvirus takes place in ...

sensory neurons

17

what drugs inhibit viral DNA polymerase and/or Hep B reverse transcriptase

base analogs- resemble bases or parts of them

Acyclovir
Valacyclovir
Ganciclovir
Lamivudine

18

what initiates activating acyclovir to phosphorylate it to a monophosphate?

viral thymidine kinase (in a virus infected cell)

19

Acyclovir MOA:
1. selective metabolic activation in virus infected cells by ...
2. ... inhibition
3. incorporation into ...
4. Viral DNA polymerase cannot add another base causing ...

viral thymidine kinase

competitive

DNA

chain termination



20

when acyclovir is phosphorylated into a ... (which lacks ...) it inhibits DNA polymerase.

triphosphate
(lacks 3'OH, irreversibly inactivates viral DNA polymerase)

21

Which disease is better treated by Acyclovir? Herpes or CMV?

Herpes

22

Which disease is better treated by Ganciclovir?
Herpes or CMV

CMV

23

In CMV, what phosphorylates Ganciclovir?

UL97 kinase

24

hepatitis B is a DNA virus BUT replication proceeds through ... of a pregenomic RNA intermediate

reverse transcriptase

25

HBV reverse transcriptase is about .... with HIV RT

50% homologous

26

Lamivudine is a .... that inhibits ....by...

Lamivudine is used for ... and ...

base analog
reverse transcriptase
competing with dCTP

HIV and Hep B

27

Ribavirin is a base analog that inhibits production and use of

RNA

28

Ribavirin has a ... spectrum

broad (affects many DNA and RNA viruses)

29

Docosanol (abreva) inhibits ....

attachment of enveloped viruses to cells

30

Docosanol is active against which diseases?

DNA viruses: herpes, CMV
RNA viruses: Influenza and RSV