Anus/Rectum/Prostate Flashcards Preview

Health Assessment quiz 4 > Anus/Rectum/Prostate > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anus/Rectum/Prostate Deck (30)
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1
Q

internal sphincter

A

under involuntary control by the autonomic nervous system

2
Q

external sphincter

A

surrounds the internal sphincter, under voluntary control

3
Q

prostate

A

2 cm behind symphysis pubis
Surrounds bladder neck and urethra
Secretes thin, milky alkaline fluid that helps sperm viability

4
Q

sigmoid colon

A

S-shaped course in pelvic cavity from iliac flexure of descending colon and ends at rectum
40 cm long

5
Q

gastrocolic reflex

A

After eating- wave of peristalsis, voiding shortly after eating

6
Q

control of sphincter

A

not achieved until 1.5-2 years

7
Q

male puberty

A

prostate gland- rapid increase to greater than twice its prepubertal size

8
Q

Who is more at risk for prostate cancer?

A

African Americans and men whose first-degree relatives relatives had prostate cancer

Starts younger in African Americans and grows faster than other racial/ethnic groups

9
Q

risk for prostate cancer

A

Men who have three or more family members with prostate cancer is about ten times

10
Q

How is prostate cancer detected?

A

prostatic specific antigen (PSA)
and/or
digital rectal exam (DRE)

11
Q

hemorrhoid

A

Flabby skin sac, thromboses hemorrhoid is shiny and blue

12
Q

fistula

A

small, round opening in anal area

13
Q

black, tarry stool with malodor

A

upper GI bleeding

14
Q

black, non-tarry stool

A

may be due to ingesting iron or bismuth preparation

15
Q

gray, tan stool

A

absence of bile pigment

16
Q

pale, yellow, greasy stool

A

increased fat content, Steatorrhea

17
Q

dyschezia

A

pain due to local condition (hemorrhoid, fissure) and constipation

18
Q

early detection for cancer

A

DRE performed annually after age 50

fecal occult blood test annually after age 50

sigmoidoscopy every 5 years or colonoscopy every 10 years after age 50 (45 for African Americans)

information about PSA blood test annually for men older than 50 years or African American men beginning at age 45 years

19
Q

encopresis

A

persistent passing of stools into clothing in a child older than 4 years, at which age continence would be expected

20
Q

colorectal cancer

A

20% higher for African Americans

21
Q

Rome III criteria for constipation

A

3 or less stools per week
straining
lumpy or hard stools
incomplete evacuation

22
Q

risks for constipation

A
older age
women
inactivity
low calorie or low fiber diet
low income/educational level
23
Q

pilonidal cyst

A

located in the midline over the coccyx or lower sacrum. Opens as a dimple with visible tuft of hair and possibly an erythematous halo. Advanced- palpable sinus tract.
First diagnosed between 15-30 years.

24
Q

anorectal fistula

A

Chronically inflamed GI tract (Crohn disease, local irrigation) creates an abnormal passage from inner anus or rectum out to skin surrounding anus, may result from local abscess.

The red, raised tract opening may drain serosanguineous or purulent matter when pressure is applied.

May heal with warm bath, high-fiber and analgesics.

25
Q

rectal prolapse

A

rectal mucous membrane protrudes through the anus, appearing as a most red doughnut with radiating lines. Complete prolapse includes the anal sphincter.

Caused by weakened pelvic floor muscles or following Valsalva maneuver and requires surgery.

26
Q

pruritus ani

A

Intense perianal itching caused by pinworm infection, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, dermatitis, chronic diarrhea, poor hygiene, perfumes/dyes, systemic diseases such as DM or inflammatory bowel disease.

27
Q

abscess

A

cavity of pus usually extending from anal crypt

characterized by persistent throbbing rectal pain

appears red, hot, swollen, indurated and tender

must be drained before it worsens or develops sepsis

28
Q

rectal polyp

A

a protruding growth from the rectal mucous membrane that is fairly common

can be pedunculated or sessile

colonoscopy/biopsy are needed to screen for malignant growth

removal has been shown to prevent deaths from colorectal cancer

29
Q

carcinoma

A

asymptomatic

the important of a DRE

cauliflower shape, fixed and stone-hard

30
Q

things to note when checking prostate gland

A

Size- 2.5-4 cm wide, should not protrude more than 1 cm into the rectum

Shape- heart shape, with palpable central groove

Surface- smooth

Consistency- elastic, rubbery

Mobility- slightly moveable

Sensitivity- nontender to palpation