Anxiety Disorders Flashcards Preview

Abnormal Pyschology > Anxiety Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders Deck (95):
1

Characteristics of Anxiety

Feeling threatened by the potential of a negative event

Fear

Triggers fight or flight response

Panic

2

Most common emotion felt in anxiety

Fear

3

Most common emotional state of anxiety

Panic

4

Gender differences in Anxiety

More common in women

5

Normal Anxiety vs. Abnormal Anxiety

1. More intense
2. Lasts longer (Months)
3.Feeling of powerlessness
4.Interference with daily functioning

6

4 Daily functioning impacted by anxiety

Sleep patterns
Work life
Daily activities
Relationships

7

Biological causes of Anxiety

30-40% heritability (weak to moderate)
Non-specific genetic risk
Neural fear circuit
Neurotransmitter system involvement

8

Neural fear circuit

Thalamus-Amygdala- hypothalamus- mid-brain- brain stem-Spinal cord

9

Neurotransmitter systems involved in anxiety

GABA: Most important in anxiety, inhibitory function in brain

Serotonin: general arousal regulatory functions in CNS

10

What do many anti-anxiety meds target

Neurotransmitter systems

11

Behavioural Factors

2 factor model
Fears developed by vicarious learning/modeling

12

2 Factor model

1. Fears acquired through classical conditioning
2. Maintained by operant conditioning

13

Cognitive Factors

Core values
Information processing
Automatic thoughts

14

Core values that cause anxiety

Helplessness
Vulnerability

15

Interpersonal Factors

Cognitive styles via improper parenting
Anxious-ambivalent attachment

16

What attachment style predicts anxiety problems

Anxious-Ambivalent attachment

17

What is Anxious-Ambivalent attachment style?

Avoidant to get attached but clingy when attached

18

Types of Anxiety Disorders

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Panic Disorder
Agoraphobia
Specific Phobia
Social Anxiety Disorder

19

Panic Disorder

Unexpected, recurrent panic (overwhelming anxiety) attacks

20

Agoraphobia

Avoidance of situations, not easy to escape

Fear of going out to public places

21

Who is a primary candidate for diagnosis of panic disorder

Whose panic attacks are not cued by a particular situation

22

Theories about Panic Disorder

Cognitive Theory
Anxiety Sensitivity
Alarm Theory

23

Cognitive Theory of Panic Disorders

Misunderstanding of bodily sensations to be more severe than they really are

24

Alarm Theory

False Alarm
Fight/Flight set off by emotional cue

25

Specific Phobia

Persistent fear and avoidance of a specific situation or object

26

What is needed to be diagnosed with specific phobia

Fear interferes with functioning and is considered excessive

27

Can classical conditioning explain all phobias

No

28

Equipotentiality

All stimuli have equal potential to become a phobia

29

Is equipotentiality a proper premise for specific phobia

No, we usually don't fear chairs

30

Nonassociative model

Some fears are evolutionary
(spiders,water, heights)

31

Biological preparedness

Combines associative and Nonassociative models

Biological predisposition make it easier to condition a phobia

32

Social Anxiety Disorder

Intense fear and avoidance of social/performance situations worry about scrutiny and negative evaluation

33

Types of Social Anxiety Disorder

Non-generalized (Performance-based)

Generalized (Social Anxiety)

34

When is anxiety normal?

Is small and infrequent

35

When is anxiety abnormal

There is excessive apprehension and worry

36

Components of Anxiety

Physiological
Cognitive
Behavioural

37

Physiological component of anxiety

Changes in autonomous nervous system
Breathing
Heart Rate
Muscle tone

38

Cognitive component of anxiety

Changes in Attention
Thoughts

39

Behavioural components of Anxiety

Avoidance

40

Most prevalent category of mental illness

Anxiety problems

41

Untreated anxiety disorders

Chronic, disabling, affect quality of life

42

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Chronic and high levels of anxiety not tied to a specific threat

43

Main characteristics of GAD

High levels of chronic anxiety
Meta-anxiety: worrying about worrying
Physical symptoms

44

Symptoms of Specific Phobias

Fear of object/situation
Physical Symptoms
Interference with normal functioning
Irrational fears (often)

45

Symptoms of Panic Disorder

Persistent worry/concern over getting panic attacks
Sudden and unexpected panic attacks
Physical symptoms
Possible agoraphobia

46

Inhibited temperament (Behavioural inhibition)

Withdrawal from situations when uncomfortable or feeling stressed

linked to development of SAD

47

Anxiety Sensitivity

Sensitive to physiological symptoms of anxiety which lead to more anxiety

Overreact with fear

48

Neurotransmitters involved

GABA
Serotonin

49

Classical Conditioning of Anxiety Responses

A unconditioned stimuli is paired with a frightening event

50

Operant Conditioning of Anxiety Responses

Fear is acquired
Situation/ Object is avoided
Fear is reinforced by reduction of anxiety

51

Cognitive Biases

1. Misinterpretation of harmless situations
2. Excessive focus on perceived threats
3. Selective recollection

52

Selective recollection

Recall information that seems threatening

53

Is there a link between stress and anxiety

There may be a connection

54

Previous Anxiety disorders (Moved from DSM-5)

Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Acute Stress Disorder
Hoarding Disorder

55

Obsessive - Compulsive Disorder

Obsessions and Compulsive behaviours, usually unreasonable

56

Obsessions

Persistent, intrusive and uncontrollable thoughts

Example: worry about running someone over when driving

57

Compulsions

Behaviours to alleviate obsessive thoughts

Going back along your route to make sure you haven't hit someone

58

Thought- action fusion

The belief that having a thought makes it more likely of it happening

Thinking about running someone over makes it more likely for you to hit someone

59

Is OCD ego- dystonic or ego- syntonic

Ego dystonic
They believe they have a problem

60

Etiology of OCD

Serotonin imbalance
Misinterpretation of intrusive thoughts

61

How to alleviate OCD

SSRIs to deal with the serotonin imbalance

62

Gender differences in OCD

2/3 women

63

Subtypes of OCD

Contamination
Responsibility for mistakes/harm
Incompleteness
Unacceptable taboo

64

Compulsions of unacceptable taboo

Mental rituals

65

Hoarding Disorder

Difficulty discarding possessions, regardless of value

66

Where does distress come from in hoarding disorder

Discarding items, perceived to be needed to be saved

67

What does hoarding result in

Accumulation of items

68

Specifier for hoarding disorder

Excessive acquisition

69

Post traumatic stress disorder

Exposure to a traumatic event leads to re-experiencing trauma, avoidance of trauma-related stressors and increased arousal

70

Traumatic event in PTSD

Traumatic event or multiple exposures

71

Can one get PTSD from television/media exposure

No, the trauma must be experienced first hand

72

How many symptoms of PTSD are in the DSM-5

20 symptoms in 4 categories

73

Categories of PTSD symptoms

Intrusive symptoms
Avoidance symptoms
Cognition and mood symptoms
Hyperarousal and reactivity symptoms

74

Duration of PTSD prior to diagnosis

1 month of trauma related symptoms
with distress and impaired functioning

75

Acute Stressor Disorder

Same as PTSD with shorter duration

76

How many symptoms of ASD are in the DSM-5

14 symptoms in 5 categories

77

Categories of ASD symptoms

Intrusion symptoms
Negative Mood
Dissociative symptoms
Avoidance symptoms
Arousal symptoms

78

Duration of ASD prior to diagnosis

3 days to 1 month
with distress and impaired functioning

79

Risk factors for PTSD

Low SES, Education intelligence, childhood environment, severity of trigger and social support

80

How many symptoms needed to diagnosis GAD

3 symptoms + worry

81

Difference in thinking between GAD and MDD

MDD: thoughts focus on past
GAD: Thoughts focus on past

82

Etiological Models of GAD

Intolerance of uncertainty
Worry due to an uncertain future

83

Treatment for Anxiety

CBT
Pharmacology

84

Pharmacological Treatment

Antidepressants used most often (most effective)
Tricyclic antidepressants (Norepinephrine and serotonin)
SSRIs (Serotonin)

85

What does the use of antidepressants in anxiety treatment suggest

An overlap between anxiety and depression

86

What pharmacological treatments are not used any longer

Minor tranquilizers
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

87

CBT treatment for Anxiety

Cognitive Restructuring
Exposure Techniques
Relaxation Exercises

88

Cognitive Restructuring

Change faulty and maladaptive thoughts
Monitor thoughts to make them more neutral

89

Exposure Techniques

Increase exposure
Flood
Response prevention

90

Increase exposure

Systematic Desensitization: Work through fear hierarchy
Least to most fear

91

Flooding

Starting exposure with most feared item

92

Interoceptive exposure

Induce anxiety related symptoms

93

Response Prevention

Do not let patient participant in anxiety reducing behaviours.

94

Relaxation Exercises

Reduce anxiety arousal
Mindfulness, muscle relaxation

95

Why is anxiety important (normal)

Causes goal directed behaviour

Keeps one motivated to follow social norms