Aortic Dissection Flashcards Preview

Year 3 Rapid Medicine Cardiology > Aortic Dissection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aortic Dissection Deck (24)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is aortic dissection?

A condition where a tear in the aortic intima allows blood to surge into the aortic wall, causing a split between the inner and outer tunica media, and creating a false lumen
intima tear -> blood flows in aortic wall -> creates false lumen by splitting the inner and outer tunica media

2

Risk factors for aortic dissection?

Hypertension
Aortic atherosclerosis
Connective tissue disease (e.g. SLE)
Congenital cardiac abnormalities (e.g. aortic coarctation)
Aortitis
Iatrogenic (e.g. angiography/angioplasty)
Trauma
Crack cocaine

3

Types of aortic dissection and defining features?

Type A = Ascending aorta tear (most common)

Type B = descending aorta tear distal to the left suBclavian artery (past end of the aortic arch)

4

Which arteries may be obstructed by aortic dissection (false aneurysm)?

Subclavian
Carotid
Coronary
Coeliac
Renal

5

Age group/sex most common for aortic dissection incidence?

40-60 years
Males

6

Presentation of aortic dissection?

Sudden, central 'tearing' pain
- this may radiate to the back
Aortic dissection can lead to occlusion of the aorta and its branches so SYMPTOMS MAY RELATE to the affected artery(s)

7

Carotid obstruction, secondary to aortic dissection, symptoms?

Hemiparesis
Dysphasia
Blackout

8

Coronary artery obstruction, secondary to aortic dissection, symptoms?

Chest pain (angina or MI)

9

Subclavian artery obstruction, secondary to aortic dissection, symptoms?

Ataxia
Loss of consciousness

10

Anterior spinal artery obstruction, secondary to aortic dissection, symptoms?

Paraplegia

11

Coeliac trunk obstruction, secondary to aortic dissection, symptoms?

Severe abdominal pain - ischaemic bowel

12

Renal artery obstruction, secondary to aortic dissection, symptoms?

Anuria
Renal failure

13

Specific examination finding for aortic dissection?

Murmur on the back below left scapula, descending to abdomen

14

What non-specific examination findings might you find in aortic dissection?

Blood pressure
- hypertension/hypotension
- wide pulse pressure

Aortic insufficiency
- collapsing pulse
- unequal arm pulses

15

Which investigations are indicated in aortic dissection?

Bloods
CXR
CT-chest
Echocardiography

16

Which bloods are useful in investigation/management of aortic dissection?

- FBC
- Cross-match 10 units of blood
- U&Es (renal function)
- Clotting

17

Signs of aortic dissection on CXR?

- widened mediastinum
- localised bulge in the aortic arch

18

Signs of aortic dissection on CT chest?

false lumen of dissection can be visualised

19

Specificity of transoesophageal echocardiography in aortic dissection?

Highly specific

20

Acute management of aortic dissection?

- Fluid resuscitation with blood products
- CT-thorax urgently
- Monitor pulse/BP in both arms, central venous pressure, insert urinary catheter

21

Treatment of Type A aortic dissection?

Emergency surgery because of risk of cardiac tamponade
- affected aorta is replaced by a tube graft

22

Treatment of Type B aortic dissection?

Medical control of BP/reduction of further dissection - IV nitroprusside and/or IV labetalol (use CCB if beta-blocker contraindicated e.g. asthma)

Surgical repair - may be appropriate in more severe cases

Endovascular repair/stent

23

Complications of aortic dissection?

Aortic rupture, cardiac tamponade, pulmonary oedema, MI, syncope, and cerebrovascular/renal/mesenteric/spinal ischaemia (remember the arteries that can potentially become occluded)

24

Prognosis summary for aortic dissection?

Untreated mortality - 30% at 24h, 75% at 2 weeks

Operative mortality - 5-10%

Further 10% have neurological sequelae

Prognosis is better for type B than type A