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Define Human Development

Refers to creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accordance with their needs and interests. It is about expanding people's choices and enhancing capabilities (the range of things people can be and do), having access to knowledge, health and decent standard of living, and participating in the life of their community and decisions affecting their lives.


Define Human Development Index (HDI)

A measurement of human development which combines indicators of life expectancy, educational levels and income. The Human Development Index provides a single statistic, which can be used as a reference for both social and economic development.



Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability for future generations to meet their own needs.


Explain economic sustainability

Economic sustainability is the capacity for future generations to earn and income and use resources efficiently in order to allow for economic growth.


Explain social sustainability

Social sustainability refers to when future generations have the same or improved access to human rights, education, political stability.


Explain environmental sustainability

Ensuring natural environment is utilised to preserve resources for the future.
E.g. Areas fished beyond sustainable limit ➡️ source of income eventually dries up ➡️ affects earning capacity for future


GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

Is the market value of all goods and services produced in a country in a given year.


List the 5 principles of the Social Model of health.

1. Enable access to health care
2. Empower individuals and communities
3. Address the broader determinants of health
4. Involves intersectoral collaboration
5. Acts to reduce social inequalities



List one example of a health promotion program within the community that aims to address the listed principle areas of the Social Model:
1. Enable access to health care
2. Address the broader determinants of health
3. Empowers individuals and communities
4. Acts to reduce social inequalities

1. Rural Retention Program (RRP): Offers financial incentives to healthcare professionals who work in rural and remote areas.
2. SunSmart Program: Addresses social/behavioural determinants for sun protection behaviour, aiming to reduce the most common form of cancer in Australia, skin cancer as it is reducing the amount of harmful UV exposure.
3. BE A MAN: Encourages men to visit the doctor and primarily promotes prostate screening, therefore aiming to reduce or prevent risk of developing prostate cancers.
4. Breast Cancer Australia: Free mammograms for women aged 50-69, removes the financial barriers and aims to reduce cancer, which contributed significantly to Australia's burden of disease.


What is the aim/focus of the Social Model of Health?

Aims to improve overall health of a community by preventing the onset of disease or illness at a primary and secondary level through health promotion. Health promotion encompasses motivating and empowering individuals and communities to make healthy life style choices and strive towards optimal health.


Briefly explain the Social Model of health.

The social model of health is a conceptual framework which focuses on social, environmental and economic aspects. This model is based on the understanding that for improvements in health to occur social, economic and environmental determinants must be addressed.


What is emergency aid?

Emergency aid (also know as humanitarian assistance) is rapid assistance given to those in immediate distress to reduce suffering during and after man made emergencies such wars, and natural disasters such as fires, floods, tsunamis and earthquakes.


List the priority areas of VicHealth

- Promote healthy eating
- Encourage regular physical activity
- Prevent tobacco use
- Prevent harm from alcohol
- Improve mental wellbeing


What is the mission of VicHealth?

- In partnership with others promote good health
- Recognise that the social and economic conditions for all people influence their health
- Promote fairness and opportunity for better health
- Support initiatives that assist individuals, communities, workplaces and broader society to improve wellbeing
- Seek to prevent chronic conditions for all Victorians


What is the role of VicHealth?

- Funding programs
- Research and evaluation
- Advocate for health promotion
- Sponsorship



What is VicHealth?

The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (commonly referred to as VicHealth) is a Victorian government funded body that works with organisations, communities and individuals. The main concerns of VicHealth are health promotion and illness prevention. In order achieve these goals, VicHealth strengthens community action by working with a range of community groups including those associated with sport, community urban planning, transport, local government, education and the arts.


Global marketing

Global marketing is the selling of products by multinational companies in developed and developing countries as a result of reduced trade barriers and increased communication technologies. It allows multinational companies to sell products such as tobacco, alcohol and processed foods in developing countries due to lost revenue on sales of these products being discouraged in developed countries.


Emergency aid

Emergency aid (also know as humanitarian assistance) is the provision of rapid assistance to those in immediate distress to relieve suffering during and after man made disasters such as wars and natural disasters such as floods fires tsunamis and earthquakes


Bilateral aid

The provision of aid from the government of one country to the government of another country


Multilateral aid

Aid provided by governments of countries and is distributed by a governing body such as United Nations



Non government organisations take different approaches to aid, which include specific projects or programs, emergency aid, volunteering, education and development. The aid of NGO's is often focused on communities.
-World Vision
-Care Australia


United Nations

An international organisation whose purpose is to "bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and that wellbeing of all people"


What is the role of the United Nations

-Promoting Human Rights
-Promoting world peace and security
-promoting social and economic development
-providing humanitarian assistance


How does the UN promote peace and security?

-issue a ceasefire: helps prevent ongoing conflict as members will abide
-send military observers or peacekeepers: help reduce tensions, separate opposing forces and establish a calm environment


How does the UN promote humanitarian assistance?

-raise money through donors and appeals
-providing assistance in emergencies (conflict and natural disasters)
-UNICEF, World Food Programme,


how does the United Nations promote social and economic development?

-Promoting higher standards of living
-promoting trade opportunities for developing countries
-providing Microfinance (loans)


How does the UN promote global health and sustainable human development?

-reducing poverty helps people achieve a decent standard of living
-children can receive education and therefore the cycle of wellbeing is continued


What is the WHO agenda?

1. promoting development
2. Fostering health security
3. Strengthening health systems
4. Harnessing research, information and evidence
5. Enhancing partnerships
6. Improving performance


Developed country

A country that has progressed adequately with regard to economic, mortality and demographic indicators


Developing country

A country that has not progressed adequately in regard to economic, mortality and demographic indicators