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Flashcards in AOS 2B Deck (82):

Training is:

It is providing people with the knowledge and skills they need to do a job or to do it more productivley


Development is:

The process designed to build up the skills necessary for future work activities and responsibilities
skills for future


Benefits of Training for employee

Opportunity to gain or grow skill set
Opportunity for promotion and self improvement
Improved job satisfaction
A challenge - opportunity to learn new things


Benefits of Training for business

Higher productivity via better job opportunities
Goals and objectives are easily met
Reduced costs
reduced absenteeism, less staff turnover, less errors and accidents
More capable workforce


Levels of analysis to help decide what training is required (3)

Organisational Analysis

Task Analysis

Person Analysis


Organisational Analysis

The entire business is analysed to decide what training activities are needed to best achieve the strategic objective


Task analysis

The individual job and task required to perform that job are analysed to determine whether any specific skills are required for a successful performance


Person analysis

Each employee is assessed to determine what kind of training is required. This helps establish training and development objectives.


performance appraisals can determine individual needs such as

Basic skills
Awareness of legislation
Technical/job specific skills
Interpersonal/communication skills
Conceptual skills


On the job training

Coaching, tutoring, mentoring by a supervisor/colleague
Role modeling
Involvement in planned work activities, special projects and committees
Job rotation in or between department
Retail (cash policies, dealing with customers, unpacking boxes)


on the job training advantages and disadvantages

Employee is being trained on the specific tools or equipment they will be using their role
They are able to practice under the supervision of more experience staff acting as their coach or mentor
Training is tailored to meet specific needs of the business
Employee is actually working while learning and is therefore being productive

Training may be substandard if mentor/coach is not trained in how to act in this role
Training may not be adequately planned and too disjointed in its delivery making it difficult for employees to grasp concepts/information
Bringing an external trainer into the workplace, may not have the knowledge and skills and be unfamiliar with the equipment and working practices at the business


Off the job training

Information presentation style - lectures written and visual format
Information processing style - sit together and process information, mind map information
Simulations - visual games and case studies
Role plays
Masters degree
Tafe course for construction workers


off the job training advantages and disadvantages

A wider range of skills can be taught
Learning from specialists and experts
Less opportunity to be interrupted by workplace issues
Provides opportunity for networking and information sharing with employees from other businesses

More expensive if paying course fees transport and possibly accommodation
Lost working time and potential output from employees while on training course
Employees with these new skills/qualification may leave the business to gain a job elsewhere


What is performance management...

Performance management is the system that can be used to improve organizational, functional and individual performance by linking the objectives of each


Performance Appraisals definition

Definition: A performance appraisal is the formal assessment of how efficient and effective an employees is in performing their role in the business.


5 Main Objectives of performance appraisals

- Provides feedback from management to employees regarding work performance
- Acts as a measurement to help determine if an employee requires a pay rise or promotion
- Helps monitor employee selection
- Identifies employee training and development needs
- Identifies new objectives and puts in place a plan for future performance


Methods of personal appraisal (3)

Essay method
Critical incident method
Comparison method


Management by objective

Processes where management and employees agree on a set of goals for each employee, when the individual goals contribute to the goals of the business as a whole
The process includes


Steps to MBO

Is a constant rotation
Business objectives are clearly defined
Individual goals are negotiated
Regular monitoring process
Performance feedback
Performance appraisal to achieve goals


Employee self evaluation

Involves employees carrying out a process of self assessment based on an agreed set criteria


Employee Observation/360 degree feedback

The aim is to get feedback from a variety of different parties to arrive at a picture of past and current performance
About 8-12 employees complete confidential evaluations forms and the employee under review also completes self evaluation


Termination is

The ending of employment of an employee


Voluntary termination

The individual chooses what they plan to do when it comes to employment


Involuntary termination

When the organization decides terminate your employment


Retirement - Voluntary

When an employee decides to give up full time or part time work and is no longer part if the labour force


Resignation - Voluntary

Is the voluntary ending of employment by the employee ‘quitting’ their job


Cost of voluntary termination on the business

Loss of talent/knowledge
Decline in morale
Productivity can either increase or decrease


Redundancy - involuntary

Occurs when a person's job no longer exists, usually due to technological changes


Voluntary redundancy

Occurs when the business wants to reduce the size and/or nature of the workforce
Employees are informed of the change, and they can nominate themselves for a redundancy


Involuntary redundancy

Happens when you get asked to leave the business against his/her will



Is when an employee loses their job due to a lack of sufficient work to keep them occupied


HR procedures in relation to redundancy and retrenchment may include

Providing the correct information to employees
Consultation process
Time off to look for new work
Redundancy/severance pay (pay out their entitlements such as holiday pay)
Possibly accrued annual leave (must be paid out) and sick leave
May consider retraining employees to get new/similar jobs


Dismissal - involuntary

As an employee contract is legally binding you are not able to fire someone just because...


Summary dismissal

the most serious form of dismissal: it's when an employee commits a serious breach of an employment contract


Dismissal on notice

when the employee is not performing the job satisfactory, this may be identified during an appraisal (more common)


Involuntary termination Advantages/Disadvantages

Cutting of non-productive employees
Reduction in costs; eg wages and overheads

Loss of talent
Decline in moral


Unfair Dismissal

When an employee is dismissed because the employer has discriminated against them in some way, eg someone is dismissed because they are pregnant;
The Fair Work Act provides a provision to protect employees from unfair dismissal


Things you cannot be dismissed for

Absence from work due to illness/injury
Race, colour, sexual preference, nationality, religion, pregnancy, family responsibility


When can you use the Fair Work Commission (criteria)

Must have worked for the organisation for a minimum of 12 months, If the business has less than 15 employees
If it has more than 15 employees, its 6 months
Wages must be covered by an award - set salary or agreement
Earn less than $136,7000 per year
The employee must believe their employee was terminated for harsh, unjust or unreasonable decisions
The employee must apply within 21 days of the dismissal taking effect


In a case the FMC (fair work commission) must consider

Was there a valid reason for dismissal of the employee relating to capacity or conduct
Was the employee given notice?
Was there any reasonable refusal by the employer to allow the employee to have a support person present to assist in any discussions relating to dismissal?
If the dismissal related to poor performance has the employee been warned about that performance?


How the FWC process works

The FWC will try to conciliate on the matter by helping both sides resolved the matter on mutual agreement
If a resolution cannot be help an arbitration hearing is required
If the dismissal is deemed to be unfair - the FWC can order the employer to reinstate the employee or compensate them for up to 26 weeks pay


Who is at the FWC meeting?

The HR manager
Terminated employee - support person
Conciliator from fair work commission


Entitlements when a working relationship ends

Remuneration (wages and salaries owed)
Any accrued annual leave
Long service leave entitlements
If they are retrenched they are also entitled to severance/redundancy (bonus pay) entitlements


Transition issues

Employees who are retiring from the workplace need assistance to organize their finances - superannuation, personal entitlements and investments
Outplacement - is a specialized service that gives assistance to retrenched employees to help them find a job


Workplace Relations

Workplace relations focuses on achieving optimal working relationships between the employees of the business and management


types of workplace relations (industrial relations) (4)

Contractual, emotional, physical, practical



Job description, work conditions, working hours, rate of pay, OH&S, policies and procedures



Emotional health of employees, stress/work life balance, community participation, no bullying, is it the workplace safe



Physical component - office layout, factory, distribution (HRM OH&S)



Is the job practical, is the process practical, day to day running, does it make sense, does it flow


Participants in Australian Workplace Relations

employees and trade unions
employers, human resource managers, employer associations
Government; Fair Work institutions, Fair Work Commission, Fair Work Ombudsman


What the union does for its members

Negotiates and bargains on their behalf during the collective bargaining process
Argues employees cases during hearings that determines awards
Provides assistance and support to individual workers
Provides information to members on matters relevant to their workplace situation


Collective Bargaining

Involves determining the terms and conditions of employment through direct negotiation between unions and employers


Key members of the union - shop steward

Locally elected union representative, an employee at a workplace is elected by local union members to represent them,
Their role is to liaise with management and the union regarding workplace issues.
An individual employee approaches their shop steward first, who may choose to take up the matter directly with management, HR or go straight to the union executive


Key members of the union - Union executive

These are people who are elected to run the union on a day to day basis known as the union executive
They act to represent members in negotiations with employers


Role of the employer

Employers and HR manager handle employee relations issues on a daily basis


Employer associations

Organisations that represent and assist employer groups
Represent employers in industrial relations cases
Represent employers in collective bargaining over wages and conditions


Three types of Employer Associations (3)

Industry associations
- Made up of employers from the same industry
Professional associations
- Made up of members of a profession
Broad based or peak bodies
- A large number of employees from a variety of industries eg Victorian Chamber of commerce


The role of the Human Resources manager (5)

- Negotiating employment agreements with employees and their representatives (unions) in workplace relation issues
- Training other managers/supervisors to facilitate agreements in their areas on responsibility
- Managing day to day procedures - new staff induction, contracts, making sure employees receive correct wages and entitlements
- Making sure all key terms of the agreement have been implemented
- Dealing with disputes and conflicts


Good workplace relations look like...

A commitment for management and employees to create a common goal and work ethic to achieve organizational goals
Making sure employees feel that their contribution is valued and they are part of the decision making process
Making sure that employees complaints are dealt with seriously to avoid further problems


Role of Government and Government Organisations (5)

Legislator - State and federal parliament pass laws which provide the legal framework for employee operations
Employer - Federal and state government employ ⅓ of Australian workers
Economic Manager - the government is concerned that wages do not lead to inflationary pressure in the economy
Administration of Government Policies on Employee relations - government guidelines and information on employee relations
Representative of Australia in the international arena - australia is a foundation member of the International Labour Organization


Fair Work institutions

1. Fair Work Commission
2. Fair Work Ombudsman
3. Fair Work Division of the Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court of Australia


Fair Work Commission responsibilities (3)

Creating and maintaining a safety net for minimum wages and working conditions - these are set out in 122 awards
Provide assistance with the resolution of workplace disputes
Making sure the enterprise bargaining approach is fair


Fair Work Ombudsman (3)

It’s role is to promote happy, productive and cooperative workplace relations and make sure all workplaces comply with Australian Laws
The FWO investigates breaches of the Fair Work Act and investigates complaints relating to workplace laws, awards and registered agreements
They also bring on court proceedings to enforce rights and obligations of employees


Fair Work Division of the Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court of Australia

Have jurisdiction to hear matters under Federal Workplace Relation Laws


An employee's wages and condition can be decided by

Enterprise Agreement
Individual employment contract


The Nation Employment Standard Covers (AKA Modern Awards) (10)

Maximum working hours
flexible working arrangements requests
Parental leave and related entitlements
Annual leave
Personal/carers and compassionate leave
Community service leave
Long service leave
Public holidays
Notice of termination and redundancy pay
Fair work information statement - a document MUST be provided to all new employees



Legally binding minimum requirements for wages and condition in certain industries
Reviewed every 4 years by the Fair Work Commission and are legal requirements


Enterprise bargaining/collective bargaining

involves deciding the terms and conditions of employment through the direct negotiation between union and employees


Enterprise agreement

is an agreement that is directly negotiated between the employer and employee at enterprise level


How an enterprise agreement works

An enterprise agreement must be approved by a majority vote by the employees affected
Must be registered and approved by the Fair Work Commission


An enterprise agreement must include the following criteria (4)

The agreement must be better than the relevant current awards
No unlawful terms
Must run for a specific time or up to 4 years
Includes a dispute process



Strikes are illegal and subject to prosecution (unprotected action)
Strikes are legal during the period of enterprise bargaining (protected action)


Individual Employment Contracts

An individual can sign a contract with their employer outlining their wages and conditions - must be better than the minimum award


Common law individual (employment) contract

Covers those employees who are not under any award or collective/enterprise agreements
Are secret
Not open to public scrutiny


Process of determining wages and conditions

the power to negotiate wages and conditions lies with the individual employers and employees/unions who use enterprise bargaining to negotiate agreements


Dispute resolution

a formal systematic process that allows employees to complain about matters that affect them and their work
Awards must include a dispute resolution clause


Disputes can be resolved through (4)

A negotiated outcome where a settlement is reached within the business
A mediated outcome where an independent mediator help parties talk about the issues and arrive at their own agreement
Conciliation - When a third party suggests outcomes
Arbitration - where an independent arbitrator/court decides how something will be resolved and makes a binding decision


When the fair work commission gets involved (dispute resolution)

The conciliation process can be undertaken by a conciliator or commissioner appointed by the FWC
If conciliation fails the matter is referred to arbitration, this is similar to a court case. Each party will make their claim and the arbitrator will make the final decision


An employee can take legal industrial action when

Industrial action is illegal in australia except during a ‘protected period’ when a new collective agreement is being negotiated


How to assess workplace relations - use the following KPIS

The levels of employee participation in decision making
The degree of workplace consultation
The organization's values
Productivity level


types of performance management (4)

- management by objective
- performance appraisals
- employee self evaluation
- employee observation (360)