Flashcards in AP Gov. Deck (160):
A meeting of members of a political party to make a decision. Or a group of people within a political party who share (a) concern(s).
Ex. republicans, democrats...
The process through which an individual acquires particular political orientations.
Ex. Family, race, religion, peers, age, school, gender.
What the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time.
Ex. Stereotypes, racism, sexism, who's better
Public opinion polls
Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population.
Ex. TV interviews, internet surveys, street surveys
Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and politics.
Ex. Magazine polls
A subset of the whole population selected to be questioned for the purposes of predicting or gauging opinion.
Ex. Like a sample platter. A little bit of everything
A method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected.
A variation of random sampling; census data are used to divide the country into four sampling regions. Sets of counties and standard metropolitan statistical areas are then randomly selected in proportion to the total national population. Ex.
Polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate.
Ex. False activities, dirty secrets, unfair fighting for power
Continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart it's daily rise or fall in support.
Ex. Newspapers, magazines, news shows
Polls conducted as voters leave selected polling places on Election Day.
Margin of error
A measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll.
Ex. Usually small %
The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals.
Ex. Right vs. Wrong, good vs. evil, religion, ideology
An organized effort by office holders, activists, and voters to pursue common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process
An organized effort by office holders, activists, candidates, and voters to pursue common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process
The office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label.
The workers and activists who make up the party's formal organization structure.
Party in the electorate
The voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
The selection of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather than at party nominating conventions
Civil service laws
These acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition
Politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party candidate or other loyalties
To vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections
An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues
The gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
A group made up of interests or organizations that join forces for the purpose of electing public officials
National party platform
A statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention
A voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party
An electoral system in which the part that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election
A party meeting held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential candidate ticket and adopting a platform
Institutional collection of policy orientated researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas
The virtually unregulated money funneled through political parties for party building purposes, such as GOTV efforts or issue ads. Banned after 2002
Funds that can be used for direct electioneering but are limited and regulated by the FEC (federal elections commission)
A citizens personal a affinity for a political party, usually expressed by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that party
A general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate
Candidate centered politics
Politics that focus directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation
Pyramid political party organization
Congressional district committees
City/ country committees, precinct/ ward committees, activists, volunteers, voters, identifiers
Conventional political participation
Political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion
Unconventional political participation
Political participation that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing.
The proportion of the voting age public that votes
A voters evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected
A voters evaluation of the performance of the party in power
A system of government that bases its rule on force rather than consent of the governed
The citizens eligible to vote
A command, indicated by an electorates votes, for the elected officials, to carry out their platforms
Election in which votes decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election
A primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote
A primary in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote
Participation in the primary of a party which the voter is not affiliated
An organized attempt by votes of one party to in fluency the primary results of the other party
A second primary election between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first primary
Election in which voters decide which candidate will actually fill elective public offices
An election option such as the initiative or referendum that enables voters to enact public policy
An election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the states voters for approval
An election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the store electorate for popular vote
An election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular vote
The tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar
A traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegation can force the minority to vote for its candidate
Delegate slot to the Democratic Party's national convention that is reserved for an elected party official
Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president
Member of the electoral college chosen by methods determined in each state
The reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives after each decennial census
The holding of an office
Redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states as well as population shifts within a state
The legislative process through which the majority party in each state house tries to assure that the maximum number of representatives from its political party can be elected to Congress through the redrawing of legislative districts
An election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term
A proposed system in which the country would be divided into 5 or 6 geographic areas and all states in each region would hold their presidential primary elections on the same day
Scare off effect
An indirect advantage of incumbency
The part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election
General election campaign
The part of a political campaign aimed at winning a general election
The process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone
Get out the vote (GOTV)
A push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls
The individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign
Coordinates the fundraising efforts
Takes public opinion surveys that guide political campaigns
Supervises a political campaigns direct mail fundraising strategies
Political ads purchased for a candidates campaign
Coverage of a candidates campaign by the news media
Advertising on behalf of a candidate. Stresses qualifications, family, and issue positions without mentioning opponent
Advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponents platform or character (daisy ad)
Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates with a bias toward the sponsor
Television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in 60, 30, or 10 seconds
Advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched
Forum in which political candidates face each other to discuss their platforms, records, and character
Political action committee (PAC)
Federally mandated, officially registered fundraising committee that represents interest groups in the political process
Donations from the general tax revenues to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates
Donations to presidential campaigns from the federal government that are determined by the amount of private funds a qualifying candidate raises
527 political committees
Nonprofit and unregulated interest groups that focus on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters
Unintended result of BCRA
Nonprofit and tax-exempt groups that can educate voters about issues and are not required to release the names of their contributors
The formal vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state conducted
Member of the political community to whom certain rights and obligations are attached
The study of who gets what, when, and how- or how policy decisions are made.
A form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interests of all.
Gov where right to participate based on wealth, social status, military position or achievement.
Gov where power resides in a leader who rules according to self interest.
Gov that gives power to the people
Doc. by pilgrims at sea, enumerating the scope of gov and expectations of citizens.
Agreement between people and government signifying their consent to be governed
Social contract theory
Belief that people are free and equal by natural right, must give consent to be governed
All discuss. All vote. All agree to majority vote
Indirect (representative) democracy
Citizens vote for representatives who vote for them
Gov rooted in the consent of the governed (indirect)
Commonly shared attitudes beliefs and core values about how gov should operate
Freedom from gov interference. Includes freedom to engage in practice without gov interference or discrimination Key characteristic of U.S. Democracy
All citizens equal in political process. "One person, one vote"
Economic theory designed to increase a nations wealth with commercial industry and favorable balance of trade
Stamp act congress
Meeting of representatives of 9 of 13 colonies in NY city 1765. Drafted doc. to send to king listing how rights had been violated
Committees of correspondence
Organizations to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British. Powerful molders of public opinion
1st continental congress
Sep.5 to Oct.26 1774 Philadelphia.
56 delegates. Not Georgia. Adopted resolution in opposition of coercive acts
Declaration of Independence
By Thomas Jefferson 1776. Right of colonies to separate from Britain
2nd continental congress
Philadelphia may 10 1775. Army raised. George Washington commander in chief
Articles of confederation
Compact among 13 colonies. Created league of friendship. Nat'l gov gets power from states.
Gov. where bat'l gov gets power from states
In 1786 where 1,500 angry farmers forcibly restrained state court from foreclosing mortgages on farms. Led by Daniel Shays. Springfield Massachusetts
Doc establishing structure, functions, and limitations of gov
Bicameral legislature. Executive and judiciary chosen by bat'l legislature
New Jersey plan
1 house legislature, 1state=1 vote. Congress raises revenue. Supreme Court for life
Final decision of constitutional convention
Slaves = 3/5ths of a person for pop. Counting for house of reps voting
Separation of powers
Divides power of gov among 3 branches. Equal and independent
Checks and balances
Constitutionally mandated structure. Each branch has some control over others
Power divided between state and national governments. National is supreme
17 specific powers granted to congress under A1 S8 of Constitution
Necessary and proper clause
AKA Elastic clause
Gives congress authority to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out enumerated powers.
Derived from enumerated powers and necessary and proper clause. Not specifically stated. Considered implied through delegated powers
Full faith and credit clause
Stars must honor the laws and judicial proceedings of other states.
National law is supreme to all other law
National and state gov share power. Derived from people. All powers specified in constitution
National gov gets power from independent states
States get power from strong national government
Powers not delegated to US by constitution are reserved to the states or people
Powers reserved to states by 10th amendment
Authority possessed by both state and national gov
Bill of attainder
A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial
Ex post facto law
Law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the crime was legal at the time it was committed
Privileges and immunities clause
Citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states
Requires states to extradite criminals to states where they've been convicted to stand trial
Contacts between states that carry the force of the law. Address multistate policy concerns
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Supreme Court denied right of a state to tax the federal bank using supremacy clause
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Supreme Court upheld broad congressman power to regulate interstate commerce. Commerce clause
Ellie's that separate and equally powerful levels of gov is best arrangement
Authorized congress to enact a nat'l income tax
Made senators directly elected by the people Removed their selection from state legislatures
Intertwined relationship between nat'l and state government because of New Deal
Grants that allocate fed funds to states for specific purpose
Federal-state relationship during 1980's. Returning administrative powers to state gov
Broad grant with few strings attached
States must comply with nat'l laws without funding
Allows nat'l gov to override or preempt state actions in local areas
Right of state to be free from lawsuit unless state gives permission. 11th amendment
Giving congress seats to states based on population
Redrawing of congressional districts
Power of house of reps to charge civil officers and remove them from office
Party in house with most members
Party in house with least members
Speaker of the House
Elected by entire house in beginning. Only member mentioned in constitution