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Flashcards in AP Gov. Deck (160):
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Caucus

A meeting of members of a political party to make a decision. Or a group of people within a political party who share (a) concern(s).

Ex. republicans, democrats...

1

Political socialization

The process through which an individual acquires particular political orientations.

Ex. Family, race, religion, peers, age, school, gender.

2

Public Opinion

What the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time.

Ex. Stereotypes, racism, sexism, who's better

3

Public opinion polls

Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population.

Ex. TV interviews, internet surveys, street surveys

4

Straw polls

Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and politics.

Ex. Magazine polls

5

Sample

A subset of the whole population selected to be questioned for the purposes of predicting or gauging opinion.

Ex. Like a sample platter. A little bit of everything

6

Random sampling

A method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected.

Ex.

7

Stratified sampling

A variation of random sampling; census data are used to divide the country into four sampling regions. Sets of counties and standard metropolitan statistical areas are then randomly selected in proportion to the total national population. Ex.

8

Push polls

Polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate.

Ex. False activities, dirty secrets, unfair fighting for power

9

Tracking polls

Continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart it's daily rise or fall in support.

Ex. Newspapers, magazines, news shows

10

Exit polls

Polls conducted as voters leave selected polling places on Election Day.

Ex.

11

Margin of error

A measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll.

Ex. Usually small %

12

Political ideology

The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals.

Ex. Right vs. Wrong, good vs. evil, religion, ideology

13

Political party

An organized effort by office holders, activists, and voters to pursue common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process

14

Political party

An organized effort by office holders, activists, candidates, and voters to pursue common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process

15

Governmental party

The office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label.

16

Organizational party

The workers and activists who make up the party's formal organization structure.

17

Party in the electorate

The voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party

18

Political machine

A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity

19

Direct primary

The selection of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather than at party nominating conventions

20

Civil service laws

These acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition

21

Issue-oriented politics

Politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party candidate or other loyalties

22

Ticket-split

To vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election

23

Party realignment

A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections

24

Critical election

An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues

25

Secular realignment

The gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system

26

Coalition

A group made up of interests or organizations that join forces for the purpose of electing public officials

27

National party platform

A statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention

28

Proportional representation

A voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party

Democrats

29

Winner-take-all system

An electoral system in which the part that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election

Republicans

30

National convention

A party meeting held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential candidate ticket and adopting a platform

31

Think tank

Institutional collection of policy orientated researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas

32

Soft money

The virtually unregulated money funneled through political parties for party building purposes, such as GOTV efforts or issue ads. Banned after 2002

33

Hard money

Funds that can be used for direct electioneering but are limited and regulated by the FEC (federal elections commission)

34

Party identification

A citizens personal a affinity for a political party, usually expressed by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that party

35

Dealignment

A general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate

36

Candidate centered politics

Politics that focus directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation

37

Pyramid political party organization

National convention
National chairpersons
National committee
State conventions
Congressional district committees
City/ country committees, precinct/ ward committees, activists, volunteers, voters, identifiers

38

Conventional political participation

Political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion

39

Unconventional political participation

Political participation that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing.

40

Turnout

The proportion of the voting age public that votes

41

Prospective judgement

A voters evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected

42

Retrospective judgement

A voters evaluation of the performance of the party in power

43

Authoritarian system

A system of government that bases its rule on force rather than consent of the governed

44

Electorate

The citizens eligible to vote

45

Mandate

A command, indicated by an electorates votes, for the elected officials, to carry out their platforms

46

Primary election

Election in which votes decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election

47

Closed primary

A primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote

48

Open primary

A primary in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote

49

Crossover voting

Participation in the primary of a party which the voter is not affiliated

50

Raiding

An organized attempt by votes of one party to in fluency the primary results of the other party

51

Runoff primary

A second primary election between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first primary

52

General election

Election in which voters decide which candidate will actually fill elective public offices

53

Ballot measure

An election option such as the initiative or referendum that enables voters to enact public policy

54

Referendum

An election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the states voters for approval

55

Initiative

An election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the store electorate for popular vote

56

Recall

An election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular vote

57

Front-loading

The tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar

58

Unit rule

A traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegation can force the minority to vote for its candidate

59

Super delegate

Delegate slot to the Democratic Party's national convention that is reserved for an elected party official

60

Electoral college

Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president

61

Elector

Member of the electoral college chosen by methods determined in each state

62

Reapportionment

The reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives after each decennial census

63

Incumbency

The holding of an office

64

Redistricting

Redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states as well as population shifts within a state

65

Gerrymandering

The legislative process through which the majority party in each state house tries to assure that the maximum number of representatives from its political party can be elected to Congress through the redrawing of legislative districts

66

Midterm election

An election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term

67

Regional primary

A proposed system in which the country would be divided into 5 or 6 geographic areas and all states in each region would hold their presidential primary elections on the same day

68

Scare off effect

An indirect advantage of incumbency

69

Nomination campaign

The part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election

70

General election campaign

The part of a political campaign aimed at winning a general election

71

Voter canvas

The process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone

72

Get out the vote (GOTV)

A push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls

73

Campaign manager

The individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign

74

Finance chair

Coordinates the fundraising efforts

75

Pollster

Takes public opinion surveys that guide political campaigns

76

Direct mailer

Supervises a political campaigns direct mail fundraising strategies

77

Paid media

Political ads purchased for a candidates campaign

78

Free media

Coverage of a candidates campaign by the news media

79

Positive ad

Advertising on behalf of a candidate. Stresses qualifications, family, and issue positions without mentioning opponent

80

Negative ad

Advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponents platform or character (daisy ad)

81

Contrast ad

Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates with a bias toward the sponsor

82

Spot ad

Television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in 60, 30, or 10 seconds

83

Inoculation ad

Advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched

84

Candidate debate

Forum in which political candidates face each other to discuss their platforms, records, and character

85

Political action committee (PAC)

Federally mandated, officially registered fundraising committee that represents interest groups in the political process

86

Public funds

Donations from the general tax revenues to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates

87

Matching funds

Donations to presidential campaigns from the federal government that are determined by the amount of private funds a qualifying candidate raises

88

527 political committees

Nonprofit and unregulated interest groups that focus on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters
Unintended result of BCRA

89

501(c)(3) committees

Nonprofit and tax-exempt groups that can educate voters about issues and are not required to release the names of their contributors

90

Government

The formal vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state conducted

91

Citizen

Member of the political community to whom certain rights and obligations are attached

92

Politics

The study of who gets what, when, and how- or how policy decisions are made.

93

Monarchy

A form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interests of all.

94

Oligarchy

Gov where right to participate based on wealth, social status, military position or achievement.

95

Totalitarianism

Gov where power resides in a leader who rules according to self interest.

96

Democracy

Gov that gives power to the people

97

Mayflower compact

Doc. by pilgrims at sea, enumerating the scope of gov and expectations of citizens.

98

Social contract

Agreement between people and government signifying their consent to be governed

99

Social contract theory

Belief that people are free and equal by natural right, must give consent to be governed

100

Direct democracy

All discuss. All vote. All agree to majority vote

101

Indirect (representative) democracy

Citizens vote for representatives who vote for them

102

Republic

Gov rooted in the consent of the governed (indirect)

103

Political culture

Commonly shared attitudes beliefs and core values about how gov should operate

104

Personal liberty

Freedom from gov interference. Includes freedom to engage in practice without gov interference or discrimination Key characteristic of U.S. Democracy

105

Political equality

All citizens equal in political process. "One person, one vote"

106

Mercantilism

Economic theory designed to increase a nations wealth with commercial industry and favorable balance of trade

107

Stamp act congress

Meeting of representatives of 9 of 13 colonies in NY city 1765. Drafted doc. to send to king listing how rights had been violated

108

Committees of correspondence

Organizations to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British. Powerful molders of public opinion

109

1st continental congress

Sep.5 to Oct.26 1774 Philadelphia.
56 delegates. Not Georgia. Adopted resolution in opposition of coercive acts

110

Declaration of Independence

By Thomas Jefferson 1776. Right of colonies to separate from Britain

111

2nd continental congress

Philadelphia may 10 1775. Army raised. George Washington commander in chief

112

Articles of confederation

Compact among 13 colonies. Created league of friendship. Nat'l gov gets power from states.

113

Confederation

Gov. where bat'l gov gets power from states

114

Shay's rebellion

In 1786 where 1,500 angry farmers forcibly restrained state court from foreclosing mortgages on farms. Led by Daniel Shays. Springfield Massachusetts

115

Constitution

Doc establishing structure, functions, and limitations of gov

116

Virginia plan

Bicameral legislature. Executive and judiciary chosen by bat'l legislature

117

New Jersey plan

1 house legislature, 1state=1 vote. Congress raises revenue. Supreme Court for life

118

Great compromise

Final decision of constitutional convention

119

3/5ths compromise

Slaves = 3/5ths of a person for pop. Counting for house of reps voting

120

Separation of powers

Divides power of gov among 3 branches. Equal and independent

121

Checks and balances

Constitutionally mandated structure. Each branch has some control over others

122

Federal system

Power divided between state and national governments. National is supreme

123

Enumerated powers

17 specific powers granted to congress under A1 S8 of Constitution

124

Necessary and proper clause
AKA Elastic clause

Gives congress authority to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out enumerated powers.

125

Implied powers

Derived from enumerated powers and necessary and proper clause. Not specifically stated. Considered implied through delegated powers

126

Full faith and credit clause

Stars must honor the laws and judicial proceedings of other states.

127

Supremacy clause

National law is supreme to all other law

128

Federal system

National and state gov share power. Derived from people. All powers specified in constitution

129

Confederation

National gov gets power from independent states

130

Unitary system

States get power from strong national government

131

10th amendment

Powers not delegated to US by constitution are reserved to the states or people

132

Reserve/police powers

Powers reserved to states by 10th amendment

133

Concurrent powers

Authority possessed by both state and national gov

134

Bill of attainder

A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial

135

Ex post facto law

Law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the crime was legal at the time it was committed

136

Privileges and immunities clause

Citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states

137

Extradition clause

Requires states to extradite criminals to states where they've been convicted to stand trial

138

Interstate compacts

Contacts between states that carry the force of the law. Address multistate policy concerns

139

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

Supreme Court denied right of a state to tax the federal bank using supremacy clause

140

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Supreme Court upheld broad congressman power to regulate interstate commerce. Commerce clause

141

Dual federalism

Ellie's that separate and equally powerful levels of gov is best arrangement

142

16th amendment

Authorized congress to enact a nat'l income tax

143

17th amendment

Made senators directly elected by the people Removed their selection from state legislatures

144

Cooperative federalism

Intertwined relationship between nat'l and state government because of New Deal

145

Categorical grant

Grants that allocate fed funds to states for specific purpose

146

New Federalism

Federal-state relationship during 1980's. Returning administrative powers to state gov

147

Block grant

Broad grant with few strings attached

148

Unfunded mandates

States must comply with nat'l laws without funding

149

Preemption

Allows nat'l gov to override or preempt state actions in local areas

150

Sovereign immunity

Right of state to be free from lawsuit unless state gives permission. 11th amendment

151

Bicameral legislature

2 houses

152

Apportionment

Giving congress seats to states based on population

153

Redistricting

Redrawing of congressional districts

154

Bill

Proposed law

155

Impeachment

Power of house of reps to charge civil officers and remove them from office

156

Majority party

Party in house with most members

157

Minority party

Party in house with least members

158

Speaker of the House

Elected by entire house in beginning. Only member mentioned in constitution

159

Party caucus

Formal gathering of all members