Flashcards in AP Human Geography Final Deck (40):
What problems do low birth rates cause?
Low growth rates cause a higher dependency ratio when there are more elderly and kids than there are adults. Less people of working age- puts a strain on social security and less people to work jobs could cause an economic collapse.
Why may stages of the DTM not apply to today's developing countries?
Because they've received foreign aid from MDCs to help with diseases that have to do with overpopulation.
How does European colonization affect LDCs?
The Europeans drew country borders without any regard to tribal politics. They also spread their languages (Particularly French and English) to North Africa along with their culture. The colonization of India also helped them to begin to move beyond the caste system and bring equality for everyone.
What factors affect movement along the DTM?
Innovation/competition, type of government and economy, type of trade approach (internal or international?), foreign aid, tribal relations, foreign affairs (good or bad standing with other countries?, wars, territorial disputes, etc.
What are the characteristics that distinguish refugees from migrants?
Refugees' are fleeing imminent war, extreme poverty, and have no place in their country where they're safe. Refugees are forced to migrate, often due to the reasons already listed as well as persecution. Migrants' lives aren't in immediate danger and are only admitted into another country if they posses special skills or have family already there. Even then, migrants have to compete with other migrants from other countries for admissions and most governments have a limit on how many migrants they allow in per country.
List and explain the problems high population growth rates are causing in the world today.
High population growth causes overcrowding and puts a strain on resources and may cause a higher dependency ratio (too many kids compared to adults).
What are some situations that might create international refugees? Describe situations that have created a refugee crisis in Africa and other parts of the world
War and terrorism (ex:ISIS); persecution due to religion, political beliefs, race, gender,etc ; extreme drought that causes famine (Sahel region of Northern Africa); flooding; generalized violence
What are push and pull factors that make people migrate?
Many political factors such as slavery forces people to move from their home country. There are also many political pull factors that might cause a person to move to a certain country, such as free healthcare. Environmental factors, such as "good" weather might make someone want to move there. Environmental factors such as extreme drought or flooding might make a person move from a country.
What are Ravenstein's Laws of migration and how do they apply to real world examples of migration?
Ravenstein noted that males are more likely to migrate long distances than females and that more long distance migrants are adult individuals rather than families with children. These laws aren't holding up to the test of time- nowadays in the US about half illegal immigrants from Mexico are women and many are children. However, many migrants from the Middle East and India are men and their families usually follow later after they have found work.
What are the major components that make up the definition of language as spoken by humans?
Language is a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds a group of people understand to have the same meaning. Many languages have a written component
What is a standard language?
In a language with multiple dialects (dialect means word choice), there is often one dialect that is widely established and most widely recognized amongst speakers. Those who speak this dialect are often referred to as having an "accent-less accent". Ex: RP (The Queen's English).
How does the text[book] explain a dialect and an isogloss?
An isogloss is an imaginary line that is either separating two different dialects or languages. A dialect is what is said or how it's spelled (ex: color vs colour, y'all vs you guys).
What are the origins of English?
English began in the British Isles when it was inhabited by Celts and was invaded by Germanic tribes (the Jutes, Angles, and the Saxons). Other invades such as the Vikings from Norway and the Normans from Northern France brought their languages to the British Isles and all these languages intermixed to form English.
Why is English so dominant around the world today?
Because England colonized so many different places throughout the world, they spread English with them and the locals eventually assimilated and learned English so they could participate fully in the economy. Because of this, English has become the Lingua Franca.
What does the study of toponyms reveal about past and current cultures of a place? What can we learn from place names?
Many immigrants, such as the Roman Catholics, give their new settlements religious toponyms, such as their settlements in Quebec and the Southwestern US (ex: st.louis) A place is also commonly given the name of its founder. Other places's toponyms are connected to ancient history (ex: athens or rome). Through toponyms, we can learn the religion, founder, and origin of a place's original settlers.
What are some different rituals that can be found in various religions?
Hindus participate in a pilgrimage to holy riverbanks such as the Ganges. Muslims make a pilgrimage to Mecca and praying 5 times a day towards Mecca. Fasting is a ritual in many different religions.
What religions are regional/cultural? Define the difference between cultural and secular.
Judaism and Hinduism are some prominent cultural religions. *Cultural means that it's usually only amongst a small group of homogeneous people and gives a sense of unique "place". *Secular is when something diffuses very rapidly throughout the world and often is used to make money and appeals to a wide variety of people.
How has religion created problems around the world?
It has caused wars and fighting over sacred spaces/ territory/ independence. Also, over what religion the region's leader is, other religion's cultural landmarks (ex: ISIS destroyed buddhist statue in Afghanistan).
Define a state and a nation
A nation is an ethnic community and is only defined by its people, and a state is an internationally recognized political unit ruled by an established government.
What are the main historic events that have led to the development of the modern European state and nation-state?/ Why have other states followed that model?
Most nation-states are located in Europe and only consist of one nationality to avoid ethnic conflicts. When the Soviet Union fell apart, it broke up into many smaller nation-states.
Why are economic success and political power so closely linked?
The more economic productivity, the more a country is contributing and makes an impact on the global market and they have more bargaining power over other countries. It also shows that they're a thriving and independent nation.
What role did colonization play in the establishment of today's states?
Europe's colonization of Africa, India, North America, and the Middle East caused the borders of countries to be drawn the way they are (with little to no regard for different cultural conflicts).
Discuss the history leading to the formation of the EU.
The European Union was designed to heal Western Europe's scars after World War II, particularly when Nazi Germany (who was in an alliance with Italy) conquered 4 other European countries. The EU was formed 13 years after the end of WW2.
What problems does the EU face?
The EU faces a flood of immigrants from the Middle East, terrorism, Greece's economic collapse, and terrorist threats such as ISIS. Because of the economically weak states, more wealthy countries are forced to subsidize them and the weak states must implement unpopular policies (ex: raising taxes, cutting services, etc).
In what other parts of the world are international associations being formed to reduce economic barriers?
OAS (the Organization of American States), all 35 states that are in the Western Hemisphere. African Union (AU), 53 countries in Africa. Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Europe. Commonwealth, Europe and former European colonies. The UN (almost all countries). NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), US, Canada, France, Germany, UK. ASEAN (Association of Southeastern Asian Nations), India, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore. SAARC (south asian association for regional cooperation) & NAFTA.
Explain the devolution of the former Soviet Union and what situations its newly independent states are facing.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, it broke up into 15 (nation-)states. When Moldova became independent, many people wanted to become part of Romania (again, the soviet union seized it in the 1940s). Many people are homeless in Tajikistan due to civil war between the Tajiks and the unusual alliance between Muslim fundamentalists and Western-oriented intellectuals. Russia has had a lot of turmoil in the Caucus region because there are so many ethnicities in one area. Other countries such as Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia have had (armed, in the case of Armenia) conflicts due to so many ethnicities.
Describe the situation in Yugoslavia with regards to ethnicity, culture, and religion
Yugoslavia had 3 main ethnic groups: The Muslim Bosniaks, the Catholic Croats, and the Orthodox Serbs. Balkanization (the break up of a large, multi-ethnic state due to ethnic conflict) and ethnic cleansing took place and eventually lead to the fall of Yugoslavia
How does acculturation affect ethnic identity?
Acculturation means keeping aspects of one's culture while still picking up parts of the dominant culture of the region. If someone is acculturated then they don't always feel strong ethnic ties to their ancestors.
Why do some countries experience difficulty as a multi-ethnic state while others don't?
Because of the way the people living in the country feel about other cultures. Ex: America (known as "the melting pot of the world") vs Russia.
Why is it accurate to describe the world today as a global assembly line?
Because more often than not, the raw materials are sourced from an LDC, put together in a factory in a developing country, and sold in an MDC.
Did the Industrial Revolution affect all regions in Europe? Why or why not?
Yes, but it affected rural Eastern & Southern Europe much, much slower.
*I used google so I'm not sure
What are all the models of development?
Demographic (and epidemiological) transition model, Rostow Model
*might be incomplete
What are some strong points of the DTM and ETM?
They can be backed up by both history and modern countries. However, there was originally not a stage 5, which would be required to explain some modern countries (Japan and most of Europe)
**not sure if this is a thorough explanation**
What are some strengths and weaknesses of W.W. Rostow's Model for Development?
Shows what jobs are being done by who in each stage, has 5 stages to cover all countries, can be backed up by both historical and modern countries, etc. Does not show population and living conditions, although you might be able to infer them.
What are some factors that helped or hindered countries in their development?
Type of government, location, resources, type of economy, ethnic/tribal wars and feuds, international wars, international politics, etc
How do world cities fit in to the picture of today's global economy and where are they located?
Small towns in undeveloped countries/ LDCs engage in primary sector activities, big cities with lots of people such as Beijing or Mexico City work in factories, the stuff that is made in those factories is sold in major cities of well developed countries such as New York and Paris
What are the changing attributes of place?
Built landscape (an area of land represented by its features and patterns of human occupation and use of natural resources) and occupance (the building of culture from an old society to a new one and shows how people react to their environment)
What is dispersion?
The pattern of spacing among individuals within geographic population boundaries
The spread of something over a given area/ the extent of a feature's spread over space/ how close together they are