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Computer Science > AP Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in AP Vocab Deck (69):
1

Prototype

A preliminary sketch of an idea or model for something new

2

Innovation

a novel or improved idea, device, product or the development thereof

3

Binary question

a question to which there are only 2 possible answers

4

Binary message

a message that van be only 1 of 2 possible values

5

Bit

binary digit

the single unit of info in a computer

6

Bit rate

the number of bits that are sent per unit of time

7

Bandwidth

transmission capacity

measured by bitrate

8

Latency

time it takes for one bit to travel from a sender to a reciever

9

Protocol

set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices

10

Permutation

an ordered arrangement of objects

11

Number System

A collection of symbols and the rules for ordering them

12

ASCII

the universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand

13

Code

write instructions for a computer

14

IETF

Develops and promotes voluntary internet standards and protocols

Specifically TCP/IP

15

Internet

a group of computer and servers that are connected to eachother

16

Net Neutrality

the principle that all internet traffic should be treated equally by all Internet Service Providers

17

Request for Comments

Documents that define standards and protocols and are published on the IETF website

18

IP Address

A number assigned to any device connected to the internet

19

Packets

small chunks of information carefully former from larger chunks of information

20

Router

a computer that recieves messages traveling across a network and redirects them towards their intended destinations based on the addressing information included with the message

21

TCP

provides reliable, ordered and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet

22

DNS

the internet's system for converting alphabetic names (URLs) into numeric IP addresses

23

Fault tolerant

enables a system to continuing operating properly in the event of the failure of one of its componenets

24

HTTP

protocol used by the World Wide Web

describes how messages are formatted and interchanged and how web servers respond to commands

25

URL

an easy to remember address for calling a webpage

26

HTML

the LANGUAGE for described structured documents as well as the language used to create web pages in the Internet

27

Abstraction

Reducing information and detail and focusing on essential characteristics

28

Server

A computer that waits for and responds to request for data

29

Client

A computer that requests data stored on a server

30

Byte

A unit of data that is 8 bits long

31

Kilobyte

A unit of data made up of 1024 bytes

32

Megabyte

A unit of data made up of 1024 kilobytes

33

Heuristic

A problem solving approach (alogirthm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact is impractical or impossible

34

Image

A type of data used for graphics or pictues

35

Metadata

Data that describes other data

36

Pixel

This model uses varying intensities of Red, Green, and Blue light that are added in together to create a broad array of colors

37

Lossless Compression

A data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data

38

Lossy

compression scheme in which "useless" information is thrown out in order to reduce the size of the data

39

Hexadecimal Number System

A numbering system that consists of 16 distinct symbols, 0-9 and A-F, which can occur in each place value

40

Hypothesis

A proposed explanation for some phenomenon used as the basis for further investigation

41

README

A document providing background information about a dataset

42

CSV

Comma separated values

Widely used file format for storing data

43

Raw Data

original data as it was collected

44

Summary table

a table of aggregate information about a dataset

summarize lots of data into a form that is more useful and easier to use

45

Aggregation

A computation in which rows from a data set are grouped together and used to compute a single value of more significant meaning or measurement

46

Examples of aggregation

Sum, average, max, median, and count

47

Algorithm

A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer and are implemented using programming languages

48

Is there any algorithm for every problem?

NO

49

Low level programming language

a programming language that captures only the primitive operations available to a machine.

Anything a computer can do can be represented with combinations of low level commands

50

High level programming language

a programming language with many commands and features designed to make common tasks easier to program

Any high level functionality is encapsulated as combinations of low level commands

51

Sequencing

the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the statements are given

52

Selection

uses a Boolean condition (TRUE/FALSE) to determine which of two parts of an algorithm is used

53

Iteration

the repetition of part of an algorithm until a condition is met or for a specified number of times

54

Abstraction

pulling out specific differences to make one solution work for multiple problems

55

Function/method

a piece of code you can easily call over and over agian

56

API

Application Programming Interface

collection of commands/functions typically with a shared purpose

57

Documentation

Description of the behavior of a command, function or library

58

Library

collection of commands/functions typically with a shared purpose

59

Parameter

an extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize for a specific need

60

Loop

a programming construct that repeats a group of commands

61

For loop

A looping construct that defines a counting variable that is checked and incremented on each iteration in order to loop a specific number of times

62

Moore's Law

States that every 18 months of so, computers and digital technology will double in speed and capacity while the cost gets cut in half

63

DDoS

Distributed denial of service

this is a type of denial of service in which the requests come from hundreds or thousands of IP addresses

64

DNS Spoofing

A form of computer hacking in which corrupt DNS data is introduced

Causes name server to return an incorrect IP address

Traffic goes to attacker's computer

65

Event driven variable

A program that runs in relation to an event, such as user actions

66

Element

must be given an unique ID so a program can reference it

this is like naming a button on a screen "but1"

67

Can you have an element without an event variable?

Yes

68

Global variable

often declared at the top of a program, can be accessed and changed by any function within the program

69

Local variable

Only exists within the function in which it was declared