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Flashcards in APGOV.CH12.Edwin.Gomez Deck (53):

501(c) groups

Groups that are exempted from reporting their contributions and can receive unlimited contributions. Section 501c of the tax code specifies that such groups cannot spend more than half their funds on political activities


527 political committees

A 527 group is created primarily to influence the selection, nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates to federal, state or local public office.


Barack Obama

an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency.


Bernie Sanders

an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007. A self-described democratic socialist and progressive, a pro-labor and emphasizes reversing economic inequality.


Bipartisan campaign reform act

banned soft money contributions to national political parties from corporations and unions; independent expenditures by corporations, labor unions, trade associations, and nonprofit organizations are sharply restricted, The elimination of "soft money"


campaign consultant

sells a candidate the technologies, services, and strategies required to get that candidate elected


campaign manager

travels with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign


Citizens United v. FEC

A case challenging the Federal Election Commission's ruling that the documentary film entitled Hilary produced by a non profit corporation and funded by for-profit corporations constituted a violation of the ban on corporate contributions to federal campaigns.The Supreme Court ruled that corporate funding of independent political ads in candidate elections cannot be limited under the first amendment


Closed Primary

a primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote


communications director

develops the overall media strategy for the candidate


contrast ad

compares the records and proposals of the candidates with a bias towards the sponsor


Conventional Political Participation

political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion


Crossover Voting

Participation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated.


Donald J. Trump

the 45th and current president of the United States. Trump later started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products. He managed the company until his 2017 inauguration.



Member of the Electoral College chosen by methods determined in each state.


Electoral College

Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president.



Citizens eligible to vote.


Federal Election Campaign Act

A law passed for reforming campaign finance that created the FEC, provided public financing for primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.


Federal Election Commission

A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The FEC administers and enforces campaign finance laws.


finance chair

The campaign professional who directs fundraising, campaign spending, and compliance with campaign-finance laws and reporting requirements



The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention.


General Election

Election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices.


get out the vote

A compaign near the end of an election to get voters out to the polls


Help America Vote Act

Passed in 2002, designed to create a more uniform voting system. Afforded states to shift from older voting machines to the touch screens used in most states today.


Hillary R. Clinton

an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker.



Tendency of those already holding office to win reelection due to advantage because they already hold the office


Independent expenditure

The Supreme Court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure.



An election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the state electorate for popular vote.


Inoculation Ad

Advertising that attempts to counteract and anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched.



A command, indicated by an electorate's votes, for the elected officials to carry out their platforms.


Matching Funds

Donations to presidential campaigns from the federal government that are determined by the amount of private funds a qualifying candidate raises.


McCutcheon v FEC

Campaign Finance case: (2014) struck down the limits on how much individuals and corporations could give in total to federal candidates and party committees claiming free speech rights. It left in place the limitations per candidate.


Midterm Election

Election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term.


Negative Ad

Advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponent's platform or character.


open primary

a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but must vote for candidates of only one party)


political action committee

committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates



someone who conducts surveys of public opinion


Positive Ad

Advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate's qualifications, family, and issue positions, without reference to the opponent.


Presidential coattails

these occur when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president.


press secretary

one of the president's top assistants who is in charge of media relations


Primary Election

Election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election.


Prospective Judgment

A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected.


Public Funds

Donations from the general tax revenues to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates.


Retrospective Judgment

A voter's evaluation of the performance of the party in power.


Runoff Primary

A second primary election between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first primary.



the process by which congressional districts are redrawn and seats are redistributed among states in the house. reapportionment occurs every ten years, when census data reportsshifts in the population of districts. each district must have an equal number of residents. states may lose or gain seats during reapportionment, but the total House membership remains 435



process through which voters may vote on new laws. one of several progressive era reforms that increased voters' power over government



An election in which voters can remove and incumbent from office by popular vote.


Super PAC

political-action committee that is allowed to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money from corporations, unions, individuals and associations. Some nonprofit groups are allowed to contribute to super PACs without disclosing where their money came from; The most important difference between a super PAC and traditional candidate PAC is in who can contribute, and in how much they can give.



The proportion of the voting-age public that votes


Thomas Jefferson

Principle drafter of the Declaration of Independence; second vice president of the United States; third president of the United Sates from 1801 to 1809. Co-founder of the Democratic Republican Party created to oppose Federalists


Unconventional Participation

Relatively uncommon political behavior that challenges or defies established institutions and dominant norms used by disadvantaged groups.


voter canvass

The process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door to door solicitation or by telephone.